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柴北缘锡铁山铅锌矿床控矿构造特征及找矿预测

冯志兴 陈正乐 李正明 展卫露 石永红 陈柏林 江万 刘博 李季霖 谭人文

冯志兴, 陈正乐, 李正明, 等, 2020. 柴北缘锡铁山铅锌矿床控矿构造特征及找矿预测. 地质力学学报, 26 (3): 329-344. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.03.030
引用本文: 冯志兴, 陈正乐, 李正明, 等, 2020. 柴北缘锡铁山铅锌矿床控矿构造特征及找矿预测. 地质力学学报, 26 (3): 329-344. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.03.030
FENG Zhixing, CHEN Zhengle, LI Zhengming, et al., 2020. Characteristics of ore-controlling structures and ore-prospecting of the Xitieshan lead-zinc deposit, northern edge of the Qaidam basin, NW China. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (3): 329-344. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.03.030
Citation: FENG Zhixing, CHEN Zhengle, LI Zhengming, et al., 2020. Characteristics of ore-controlling structures and ore-prospecting of the Xitieshan lead-zinc deposit, northern edge of the Qaidam basin, NW China. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (3): 329-344. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.03.030

柴北缘锡铁山铅锌矿床控矿构造特征及找矿预测

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.03.030
基金项目: 

中国地质调查局基本科研业务费项目 JYYWF20180602

中国地质调查局基本科研业务费项目 JYYWF20183702

详细信息
    作者简介:

    冯志兴, 正高级工程师, 主要从事矿产勘查工作。E-mail:179339952@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    陈正乐, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要从事矿田构造与找矿预测工作。E-mail:chenzhengle@263.net

  • 中图分类号: P613;P612

Characteristics of ore-controlling structures and ore-prospecting of the Xitieshan lead-zinc deposit, northern edge of the Qaidam basin, NW China

  • 摘要: 锡铁山矿床是中国西部的超大型铅锌矿产地之一,产于柴北缘晚奥陶世滩间山群的大理岩和片岩之中,是与海相火山喷流-沉积有关的矿床。很多学者已经从地球化学、岩石学、同位素测年等对该矿床的成矿时代、成矿流体性质、矿床成因等开展了研究,但对于锡铁山矿区构造控矿特征一直存在争议,普遍认为褶皱构造对矿区的控矿作用明显。文章主要以详实的野外观测为基础,分析了矿区的褶皱和断裂构造特征,探讨了构造对矿(床)体的控制作用,为矿区找矿勘查工作部署提供依据。通过详实的野外实测和综合对比分析表明,锡铁山矿区总体上为单斜层,不发育大型的褶皱构造,但是层内褶皱发育,包括A型褶皱和B型褶皱。发育在滩间山群a段内的A型褶皱,其褶皱枢纽与拉伸线理倾向南东,与矿区矿体的总体倾伏方向一致;而在滩间山群d段内的A型褶皱,其枢纽倾向北西;矿区内发育了多条北西西走向的大型断裂,其编号为F1—F6;分析表明,F1断层发育在早期塑性变形基础之上,晚期叠加了叠瓦逆冲推覆作用,造成了矿体及赋矿围岩的局部倒转;F2断裂大规模的左行走滑-逆冲作用导致了矿区滩间山群不同岩性段地质体的拼合接触,造成了矿区部分含矿地质体的缺失;野外填图揭示出,左行走滑的F3断裂从北西往南东,走向从330°逐渐转变为290°方向,并在南东侧末端,发育了一系列分支的左行走滑-正断层,组成"马尾状"构造,截切了矿体与围岩,并发生了横向错移。以此构造控矿特征为基础,结合矿床成因分析,进一步分析了锡铁山矿区深部的找矿方向,认为矿区南东侧深部具有良好的找矿空间;并以07号勘探线为例,根据F3及其分支断层的错移情况,分析了矿体可能被错移的位置。

     

  • 图  1  锡铁山铅锌矿矿区地质构造简图(据魏俊浩等,2015修改)

    Figure  1.  Simplified geological and structural map of the Xitieshan deposit (modifed after Wei et al, 2015)

    图  2  锡铁山矿区实测地质剖面图

    1-干柴沟组;2-城墙沟组;3-阿木尼克组;4-滩间山群d第四岩性组;5-滩间山群d段第三岩性组;6-滩间山群d段第二岩性组;7-滩间山群d段第一岩性组;8-滩间山群c段;9-滩间山群b段;10-滩间山群a段第二岩性段;11-滩间山群a段第一岩性段;12-达肯大坂群;13-矿体;14-斜长片麻岩;15-斜长角闪片麻岩;16-绿泥石片岩;17-绿帘石片岩;18-变玄武岩;19-变流纹岩;20-大理岩;21-含砾砂岩;22-粉砂岩;23-砂岩;24-砾岩;25-逆冲断层;26-走滑断层;A-A′ -E-E′实测剖面位置见图 1;F1-F6为断层编号

    Figure  2.  Field measured geological cross-sections in the Xitieshan deposit

    图  3  锡铁山矿区A型褶皱野外照片

    a-红柳沟滩间山群a-2段中的拉伸线理;b、c-中间沟滩间山群a-2段中A型褶皱与拉伸线理;d-中间沟滩间山群a-2段中的拉伸线理;e、f、g-红柳沟滩间山群d-3中的A型褶皱与拉伸线理;h、i、j、k、l-中间沟滩间山群d-3中的A型褶皱与拉伸线理

    Figure  3.  Field photos of A-type folds in the Xitieshan deposit

    图  4  锡铁山矿区B型褶皱构造野外照片

    a-锡铁山沟滩间山群a-2段中发育的层内反S型褶皱;b-锡铁山沟阿木尼克组中发育的直立向斜;c-断层沟石炭系中发育的S型褶皱C1c-城墙沟组;D3a-阿木尼克组;O3tna-2-滩间山群a-2段

    Figure  4.  Field photos of B-type folds in the Xitieshan deposit

    图  5  锡铁山矿区F1断裂野外照片

    a-钾长石眼球与糜棱理组成的S-C组构,指示了左行剪切,中间沟;b-不对称的钾长石眼球,中间沟;c-断层沟韧性剪切带内的S-C组构;d-红柳沟F1断裂带内的挤压透镜体;e-锡铁山沟F1的叠瓦逆冲推覆构造;f-锡铁山沟F1断层与劈理

    Figure  5.  Field photos of the F1 fault in the Xitieshan deposit

    图  6  锡铁山矿区F2断裂野外照片

    1-城墙沟组2段;2-城墙沟组1段;3-城墙沟组;4-滩间山群c段;5-滩间山群b段;6-滩间山群a段;7-细砂岩;8-断层;9-产状;a-红柳沟西侧小沟中的F2断层面及其擦痕;b、c-F2破碎带旁侧的牵引褶皱;d-锡铁山沟F2断层呈直线状沟谷地貌;e-中间沟东侧滩间山群a-2段与石炭系间的F2断层;f-断层沟F1将滩间山群a-2段推覆于石炭系之上

    Figure  6.  Field photos and explanation of the F2 fault in the Xitieshan deposit

    图  7  锡铁山矿区F3断裂野外照片

    1-城墙沟组;2-阿木尼克组;3-滩间山群d-1段;4-左行走滑正断层;5-逆断层;a-锡铁山沟滩间山群d-1段和泥盆系之间的F3断层,与分支断层组成半花状构造;b、c-中间沟F3分支断层地表特征

    Figure  7.  Field photos and explanation of the F3 fault in the Xitieshan deposit

    图  8  锡铁山矿区F4、F5和F6断裂野外照片

    1-第四系;2-城墙沟组;3-滩间山群d段;4-滩间山群a段;5-达肯大坂群;6-砾岩;7-砂岩;8-片岩;9-大理岩;10-片麻岩;11-逆冲断层;a-无名沟中的F4断层地表特征;b、c-无名沟中F5断层地表特征;d、e-泉吉峡叠瓦逆冲推覆的F6断层

    Figure  8.  Field photos and explanation of the F4, F5 and F6 faults in the Xitieshan deposit

    图  9  中间沟地区F2截切滩间山群地质简图和野外照片

    1-第四系;2-城墙沟组;3-阿木尼克组;4-滩间山群d-1段;5-滩间山群c段;6-滩间山群b段;7-滩间山群a-2段;8-大理岩;9-铅锌矿体;10-正断层;11-逆断层;图b为图a中五角星处的照片

    Figure  9.  Simplified map of the western side of the Zhongjiangou area and the field photo, showing the missing of the c- and b-segments of the Tanjianshan Group

    图  10  锡铁山矿区“大肚囊”构造现象及其解释

    1-城墙沟组;2-阿木尼克组;3-滩间山群d段第二岩性段;4-滩间山群d段第一岩性段;5-滩间山群c段;6-滩间山群b段;7-滩间山群a段第二岩性段;8-滩间山群a段第一岩性段;9-达肯大坂群;10-大理岩;11-变流纹岩;12-矿体;13-断层

    Figure  10.  Special phenomenon of the c-segment of the Tanjianshan Group and its explanation

    图  11  锡铁山矿区07号勘探线中的矿体被F3分支断层错移示意图

    1-城墙沟组;2-阿木尼克组;3-滩间山群d段第二岩性段;4-滩间山群d段第一岩性段;5-滩间山群c段;6-滩间山群b段;7-滩间山群a段第二岩性段;8-滩间山群a段第一岩性段;9-达肯大坂群;10-变流纹岩;11-矿体;12-大理岩;13-左行-正断层;14-示意为大理岩型矿体;15-示意为片岩型矿体

    Figure  11.  Schematic diagram showing the dislocation of ore bodies by the branch faults of the F3 fault in Line 07 for example

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