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地球中的流体和穿越层圈构造

卢焕章

卢焕章, 2019. 地球中的流体和穿越层圈构造. 地质力学学报, 25 (6): 1003-1012. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.06.083
引用本文: 卢焕章, 2019. 地球中的流体和穿越层圈构造. 地质力学学报, 25 (6): 1003-1012. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.06.083
LU Huanzhang, 2019. GEOFLUIDS AND ACROSS EARTH SPHERE STRUCTURES. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (6): 1003-1012. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.06.083
Citation: LU Huanzhang, 2019. GEOFLUIDS AND ACROSS EARTH SPHERE STRUCTURES. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (6): 1003-1012. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.06.083

地球中的流体和穿越层圈构造

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.06.083
基金项目: 

矿床地球化学国家重点实验室基金 2018001

详细信息
    作者简介:

    卢焕章(1940-), 男, 博士, 加拿大魁北克大学教授。主要从事地球化学, 地球中流体和流体包裹体教学和研究。E-mail:hzlu@uqac.ca

  • 中图分类号: P542.5

GEOFLUIDS AND ACROSS EARTH SPHERE STRUCTURES

  • 摘要: 地球中的流体是当前科学研究的重点。从地球科学的角度来说,流体应包括气体、液体(水和石油)、熔体和地球中受应力作用而移动的物体。在半经为6378 km的固体地球中可分为7个层圈。目前对地球内部流体的了解很少,为探索流体在各层圈中的成分,物理化学性质和分布,以现阶段对地球层圈和流体研究程度来看,其重点应放在地球中穿越层圈的构造部分和地壳。地球中穿越层圈的构造主要有三个:板块构造的俯冲带是由上到下的穿越层圈构造,向下俯冲的大洋岩石圈可以抵达地幔过渡带;大洋中脊的扩张引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造,使岩石圈和地幔的熔流体从下向上运移;地幔柱引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造,使地幔的熔流体从下向上迁移。通过对三个穿越层圈构造和地壳中流体的研究,可以得出地壳、岩石圈、上地幔、过渡带、下地幔和核幔边界层流体的种类和成分、流动和演化。这是至今为至能鉴定到地球中深部流体的方法。这四个方面的研究是当前地球中流体科学研究的重点,并对开展深部找矿有实际意义。

     

  • 图  1  地球的层圈构造(from depositphoto.com)

    从左到右:薄层地壳; 地幔; 外核; 内核

    Figure  1.  Earth sphere structure(from depositphoto.com)

    图  2  地球的层圈构造剖面图(from tex.edu.glogster.com)

    从地表到核:地壳; 岩石圈; 软流圈; 上地幔; 下地幔; 外核和内核

    Figure  2.  Section of earth sphere structure(from tex.edu.glogster.com)

    图  3  地球的穿越层圈构造示意图

    1—板块构造的俯冲带是由上到下的穿越层圈构造,向下俯冲的大洋岩石圈可以抵达地幔过渡带;2—大洋中脊的扩张引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造,使岩石圈和地幔的熔流体从下向上运移;3—地幔柱引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造

    Figure  3.  Three across earth sphere structures

    图  4  板块构造的俯冲带是由上到下的穿越层圈构造(from tex.edu.glogster.com)

    Figure  4.  Subduction of plate tectonics, showing fluid move from top to bottom(from tex.edu.glogster.com)

    图  5  大洋中脊的扩张引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造和板块构造的俯冲带是由上到下的穿越层圈构造[3, 6, 9]

    Figure  5.  Ocean ridge from bottom to top, across earth sphere structure and subduction from top to bottom across earth sphere structure[3, 6, 9]

    图  6  大洋中脊的扩张引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造剖面图[5-6, 9]

    Figure  6.  Bottom-up setion of Earth sphere structure caused by the expansion of mid-oceanic ridge[5-6, 9]

    图  7  大洋中脊的烟囱和溢出的热液(from depositphoto.com)

    Figure  7.  Mid-oceanic ridge and hydrothermal fluid (from depositphoto.com)

    图  8  黑烟囱的剖面和横切面图[16]

    Figure  8.  Longitudinal and cross sections of chimney[16]

    图  9  地幔柱引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造[17]

    Figure  9.  Bottom-up across earth sphere structure caused by mantle plume[17]

    图  10  地幔柱引起的由下而上的穿越层圈构造(from depositphoto.com)

    显示地幔柱在由下而上的流体的穿越作用,超级地幔柱在D″层形成, 穿过下地幔(lower mantle)和过渡层(2ndLVZ)到达上地幔(upper mantle)

    Figure  10.  Bottom-up across sphere structure caused by mantle plume (from depositphoto.com)

    图  12  地幔柱在形成南非Bushveld层状侵入体和世界上最大的铂族金属产地并富集铜镍硫化物上的作用[19, 26]

    a—地幔柱上升, 溢出熔岩形成层状火成岩; b-d—Pt, Cr, Ni, Cu成矿作用

    Figure  12.  Mantle plume and formation of Bushveld layer complex and ΣPt and Cu, Ni sulfides[19, 26]

    图  13  地幔柱与金矿成因[29](造山型金矿的形成与地幔流体有关)

    Figure  13.  The relationship between mantle plume and orogenic gold deposit[29] (The formation of orogenic gold deposits is related to mantle fluids)

    图  11  地幔金刚石中的流体成份[27](富Mg、Fe、Ca、Na和K)

    符号代表不同金刚石中流体包裹体的成份

    Figure  11.  Composition of mantle diamond[27] (rich in Mg, Fe, Ca, Na and K)

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  • 收稿日期:  2019-07-16
  • 修回日期:  2019-09-27
  • 刊出日期:  2019-12-31

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