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华北克拉通构造演化

翟明国

翟明国, 2019. 华北克拉通构造演化. 地质力学学报, 25 (5): 722-745. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.05.063
引用本文: 翟明国, 2019. 华北克拉通构造演化. 地质力学学报, 25 (5): 722-745. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.05.063
ZHAI Mingguo, 2019. TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE NORTH CHINA CRATON. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (5): 722-745. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.05.063
Citation: ZHAI Mingguo, 2019. TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE NORTH CHINA CRATON. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (5): 722-745. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.05.063

华北克拉通构造演化

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.05.063
基金项目: 

中国科学院前沿课题 QYZDY_SSN_DQC017

国家自然基金项目 41890834

详细信息
    作者简介:

    翟明国(1947-), 男, 研究员, 中国科学院院士, 主要从事前寒武纪地质学与变质地质学、岩石学和矿物学研究。E-mail:mgzhai@mail.iggcas.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P541

TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE NORTH CHINA CRATON

  • 摘要: 华北克拉通是中国大陆的主要构造单元,从早期到中生代以来的地质记录较完整,受到国际关注,是大陆形成和演化研究的天然实验室。华北克拉通的构造演化可以分为八个大的阶段:陆核形成阶段;陆壳巨量生长阶段;微陆块拼合与克拉通化;古元古代大氧化事件与地球环境剧变;古元古代活动带构造与高级麻粒岩相变质作用;中-新元古代多期裂谷与地球中年调整期;古生代边缘造山;中生代构造转折与去克拉通化。华北克拉通的大陆演化显示了地球的进化和不可逆过程,特别是热体制的演变。早期陆核的成因仍存在争议,但是陆壳由小到大、多阶段生长的过程是明确的。25亿年前后的克拉通化是最具显示度的地质事件,微陆块的拼合是大陆聚合和形成稳定克拉通的主要过程,已经被揭示。但是由绿岩带-高级区构成的穹隆-龙骨构造并不遵从板块构造的基本构造样式。经历了太古宙与元古宙分界时期的"静寂期"之后,华北克拉通记录了与全球休伦冰期以及大氧化事件相关的地质活动。古元古代活动带则记录了裂谷-俯冲-碰撞的过程,具有显生宙造山带的某些特征,伴有高级麻粒岩岩相的变质作用,暗示了早期板块构造的出现。从约18~8亿年长达十亿年或更长的时限里,华北克拉通一直处于伸展环境,发育多期裂谷,有多期陆内岩浆活动,是岩石圈结构和下地壳组成的关键调整期。从古生代起,华北的南、北缘都经历了现代板块构造意义的造山事件,显示了华北克拉通古陆通过古蒙古洋和古秦岭洋与相邻陆块之间的构造活动,分别称为兴蒙造山带和秦岭-大别造山带。中生代的华北克拉通出现构造体制的转折和地壳活化,表现为岩石圈减薄和大量壳熔花岗岩的出现。古太平洋板块的活动显然是重要因素之一,但周边其它陆块的作用也是重要的,克拉通破坏机制及其内涵的研究还有进一步深化的空间。华北克拉通的构造演化有其特点,也具有全球意义。

     

  • 图  1  华北(中朝)克拉通的大地构造位置[3]

    Figure  1.  Sketch geotectonic map showing the North China (Sino-Korea) craton and related areas[3]

    图  2  华北克拉通前寒武纪重大地质事件示意图[11]

    Figure  2.  Diagram showing Precambrian crust growth and important geological events in the NCC and their relationship with global events[11]

    图  3  华北克拉通前寒武纪岩石出露示意图

    Figure  3.  Sketch map showing distribution of Precambrian rocks in the NCC

    图  4  华北克拉通TTG岩石的εHf(t)值对207Pb/206Pb年龄图解[13]

    Figure  4.  εHf(t) versus 207Pb/206Pb age plot of TTGs in the NCC[13]

    图  5  华北微陆块克拉通化

    a—华北克拉通7个晚太古代微陆块[52];b—绿岩带—高级区构造格局[13];c—微陆块拼合过程[13]

    Figure  5.  Micro-blocks crtonization of the NCC

    图  6  全球大氧化期的事件与成矿[93]

    Figure  6.  Global GOE and metallogenic events[93]

    图  7  莱州粉子山的地层与同位素特征[94]

    Figure  7.  Stratigraphic column of the Fenzishan Group and O-C isotopic characteristics[94]

    图  8  高级麻粒岩相变质作用的P-T演化途径[124]

    Bs—蓝片岩相;Ec—榴辉岩相;Gs—绿片岩相;Am—角闪岩相;Gr—麻粒岩相;Ky—蓝晶石;And—红柱石;Sil—夕线石;EA—绿帘角闪岩相

    Figure  8.  P-T paths of high-grade granulite facies[124]

    图  9  热、变质作用与构造体制转变

    Figure  9.  Geothermal, metamorphism and tectonic system transformation

    图  10  华北中—新元古代的裂谷及岩墙群分布示意图

    Figure  10.  Sketch map showing distribution of Meso-Neoproterozoic rifts and dyke swarms

    图  11  古生代华北克拉通南、北边缘造山带示意图

    Figure  11.  Schematic diagram showing orogenic belts along the northern and southern margins of the NCC

    图  12  华北东部中生代地幔上隆与地壳伸展模式[174]

    Figure  12.  Model of Mesozoic mantle upwelling and crust extension of the eastern North China[174]

    图  13  华北克拉通地质事件与成矿作用同步演化关系图[182]

    Figure  13.  Diagram showing synchronous evolution between metallogenic systems and tectonic events of the NCC[182]

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