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陕南秦巴山区地质灾害危险性评价研究

周静静 张晓敏 赵法锁 李辉 刘海南

周静静, 张晓敏, 赵法锁, 等, 2019. 陕南秦巴山区地质灾害危险性评价研究. 地质力学学报, 25 (4): 544-553. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.04.053
引用本文: 周静静, 张晓敏, 赵法锁, 等, 2019. 陕南秦巴山区地质灾害危险性评价研究. 地质力学学报, 25 (4): 544-553. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.04.053
ZHOU Jingjing, ZHANG Xiaomin, ZHAO Fasuo, et al., 2019. RESEARCH ON RISK ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN QINLING-DABA MOUNTAIN AREA, SOUTH SHAANXI PROVINCE. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (4): 544-553. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.04.053
Citation: ZHOU Jingjing, ZHANG Xiaomin, ZHAO Fasuo, et al., 2019. RESEARCH ON RISK ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN QINLING-DABA MOUNTAIN AREA, SOUTH SHAANXI PROVINCE. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (4): 544-553. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.04.053

陕南秦巴山区地质灾害危险性评价研究

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.04.053
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41877247

详细信息
    作者简介:

    周静静(1992-), 女, 在读博士, 主要从事地质灾害研究。E-mail:578685749@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    张晓敏(1994-), 女, 在读硕士, 主要从事地质灾害研究。E-mail:854168051@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P694;X43

RESEARCH ON RISK ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN QINLING-DABA MOUNTAIN AREA, SOUTH SHAANXI PROVINCE

  • 摘要: 陕西省是中国地质灾害最严重的省份之一,而陕南秦巴山区地质灾害灾情尤为严峻,因此进行地质灾害危险性评价对指导防灾减灾工作意义重大。文章以陕南秦巴山区为研究区,基于GIS技术与2001-2016年研究区地质灾害灾情数据,分析研究了区内地质灾害与各指标因子之间的敏感性关系,并确定了高程、岩土体类型、断裂构造、降雨等7个影响地质灾害发生较大的因子作为区域地质灾害危险性评价指标。其次,以各指标条件下地质灾害数量和累计发生频次曲线斜率的突变为依据,对评价指标因子进行状态分级。最后,运用信息量法建立栅格数据模型展开区域地质灾害危险性评价。研究结果表明:高危险性、较高危险性、中危险性的地区占研究区总面积的百分比分别为10.52%、28.31%、30.19%,区内地质灾害点的空间分布与地质灾害危险性评价结果基本一致,信息量模型的预测精度为90.16%。文章将经验知识与数据驱动的分析方法相结合,应用于较大范围的地质灾害危险性区划,研究结果可为区域地质灾害防治工作提供参考依据。

     

  • 图  1  陕南秦巴山区区域自然地理概况

    Figure  1.  Natural geography of Qinling-Daba mountain area

    图  2  危险性评价指标因素

    Figure  2.  Index factors of risk assessment

    图  3  地质灾害分布与高程的关系

    Figure  3.  The relationship between geological hazard distribution and elevation

    图  4  地质灾害分布与坡度的关系

    Figure  4.  The relationship between geological hazard distribution and slope

    图  5  地质灾害分布与岩土体类型的关系

    岩土类型:1——坚硬岩石;2——坚硬、半坚硬岩石;3——半坚硬、半软弱岩石;4——软弱岩石;5——粘性土;6——砂土、砾石层

    Figure  5.  The relationship between geological hazard distribution and the type of rock and soil

    图  6  地质灾害分布与断裂缓冲区的关系

    Figure  6.  The relationship between geological hazard distribution and fault buffer

    图  7  地质灾害分布与河流缓冲区的关系

    Figure  7.  The relationship between geological hazard distribution and river buffer

    图  8  地质灾害分布与年平均降雨量的关系

    Figure  8.  The relationship between geological hazard distribution and average annual rainfall

    图  9  地质灾害分布与道路缓冲区的关系

    Figure  9.  The relationship between geological hazard distribution and road buffer

    图  10  陕南秦巴山区各指标因子状态分级图

    Figure  10.  Grading chart of each index factor in Qinling-Daba mountain area

    图  11  陕南秦巴山区地质灾害危险性分区图

    Figure  11.  Risk zoning map of Qinling-Daba mountain area

    表  2  各指标因子间的相关关系

    Table  2.   The correlation between index factors

    相关
    关系
    指标
    因子
    高程 坡度 岩性 断裂 水系 地震 降雨 人类
    活动
    R 高程 1
    坡度 0.04 1
    岩性 0.07 -0.01 1
    断裂构造 0.06 0.027 0.12 1
    水系 -0.02 0.003 -0.01 0.045 1
    地震 0.02 -0.04 0.05 -0.04 -0.02 1
    降雨 -0.01 0.00 0.11 0.04 0.00 0.09 1
    人类活动 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.12 0.24 -0.09 -0.04 1
    Sig. 高程
    坡度 0.00
    岩性 0.00 0.15
    断裂构造 0.00 0.00 0.00
    水系 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00
    地震 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    降雨 0.02 0.55 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00
    人类活动 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  信息量值计算结果

    Table  3.   Results of information values

    评价指标 分级 信息量 评价指标 分级 信息量
    高程/m [157, 417) 0.8238 与水系距离/m [0, 400) 0.6553
    [417, 1327) 0.0876 [400, 800) 0.0856
    [1327, 1977) -0.3877 [800, 1200) 0.1079
    [1977, 3038) -0.5265 [1200, 1600) -0.0903
    岩土体类型 坚硬岩石 -0.7434 [1600, 2000) 0.0831
    坚硬、半坚硬岩石 -0.0867 > 2000 -0.1283
    半坚硬半软弱岩石 -0.2284 年平均降雨量/mm [600, 672) -0.4791
    软弱岩石 0.3842 [672, 924) 0.0251
    粘性土 0.2624 [924, 1032) 0.1482
    砂土、砾石层 -0.1184 [1032, 1140) -0.1450
    与断裂带距离/m [0, 1000) 0.1974 [1140, 1269) -0.7780
    [1000, 2000) -0.0021 与交通线路距离/m [0, 500) 0.6455
    [2000, 3000) 0.0010 [500, 1000) 0.1927
    [3000, 4000) -0.1621 [1000, 1500) 0.1447
    [4000, 5000) -0.2390 [1500, 2000) 0.1634
    ≥5000 -0.6038 [2000, 3000) 0.0288
    抗震设防烈度 6 0.0779 ≥3000 -0.2058
    7 -0.1274
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  危险性评价结果统计

    Table  4.   Statistical results of risk assessment

    危险性等级 发生灾害的
    栅格数b
    栅格总数
    c
    灾害比例
    (b/c)/%
    占发生灾害栅格
    总数比例/%
    占栅格总数
    比例/%
    灾点密度/
    100 km2
    1029830 1037557 99.26 29.45 10.52 21.34
    较高 1237287 2792448 44.31 35.38 28.30 9.48
    886292 2978551 29.76 25.34 30.19 6.57
    较低 258923 2023478 12.80 7.40 20.51 2.99
    85083 1033906 8.23 2.43 10.48 1.97
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-09-04
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