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南北活动构造带中段地质灾害与重大工程地质问题概论

郭长宝 张永双 王涛 孙萍 蒋良文 杜宇本 杨志华

郭长宝, 张永双, 王涛, 等, 2017. 南北活动构造带中段地质灾害与重大工程地质问题概论. 地质力学学报, 23 (5): 707-722.
引用本文: 郭长宝, 张永双, 王涛, 等, 2017. 南北活动构造带中段地质灾害与重大工程地质问题概论. 地质力学学报, 23 (5): 707-722.
GUO Changbao, ZHANG Yongshuang, WANG Tao, et al., 2017. DISCUSSION ON GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND MAJOR ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE MIDDLE PART OF THE NORTH-SOUTH ACTIVE TECTONIC ZONE, CHINA. Journal of Geomechanics, 23 (5): 707-722.
Citation: GUO Changbao, ZHANG Yongshuang, WANG Tao, et al., 2017. DISCUSSION ON GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND MAJOR ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE MIDDLE PART OF THE NORTH-SOUTH ACTIVE TECTONIC ZONE, CHINA. Journal of Geomechanics, 23 (5): 707-722.

南北活动构造带中段地质灾害与重大工程地质问题概论

基金项目: 

中国地质调查局项目 DD20160271

国家自然科学基金项目 41402321

国家自然科学基金项目 41731287

详细信息
    作者简介:

    郭长宝(1980-), 男, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事工程地质与地质灾害方面的研究。E-mail:guochangbao@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P642;P694

DISCUSSION ON GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS AND MAJOR ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE MIDDLE PART OF THE NORTH-SOUTH ACTIVE TECTONIC ZONE, CHINA

  • 摘要: 甘肃天水等城镇和成兰交通廊道位于青藏高原东缘南北活动构造带中段,是中国东西部地质、地貌边界带,断裂活动性强,地震活动频繁。本文在区内地质资料收集分析和野外地质调查的基础上,从活动断裂、浅表层地质灾害、深埋隧道重大工程地质问题等角度,分析了甘肃天水等城镇和成兰交通廊道规划建设过程中可能遇到的工程地质问题,认为:研究区内对成兰铁路和甘肃天水等城镇具有重大影响的活动断裂带主要有15条,并对区域构造应力场具有重要影响,具有强震诱发背景;研究区内地质灾害极为发育,主要包括崩塌、滑坡和泥石流,地质灾害的发育分布受强降雨、地震和活动断裂影响大,并发育一系列古地震滑坡,部分崩塌和滑坡方量大,具有高位、高速远程等特征,已严重制约着城镇、铁路、公路等地面工程建设,危害严重;研究区内深埋长大隧道多且工程地质问题复杂,已经遇到并严重受高地应力、软岩大变形、涌水突泥和高地温等重大工程地质问题的影响,同时还存在活动断裂断错效应对深埋隧道和桥梁等重要工程设施的长期影响。针对上述工程地质问题,深入探讨了其发育分布规律,并提出了调查研究途径和解决办法,对区内重要城镇、重大工程规划建设具有一定的借鉴意义。

     

  • 图  1  研究区构造位置图

    Ⅰ-喜马拉雅区;Ⅱ-西藏块体;Ⅲ-甘青块体;Ⅳ-川滇块体;Ⅴ-华南地块;Ⅵ-鄂尔多斯地块;Ⅶ-塔里木块体;1-红河断裂;2-小江断裂;3-则木河断裂;4-安宁河断裂;5-金沙江断裂;6-嘉黎断裂带;7-喜马拉雅南麓主山断裂带;8-亚东-谷露断裂;9-甲岗定结断裂带;10-龙门山断裂带;11-鲜水河断裂;12-玉树断裂;13-东昆仑断裂带;14-鄂拉山断裂;15-日月山断裂;16-文县断裂;17-西秦岭北缘断裂;18-海原断裂带;19-龙首山断裂;20-阿尔金断裂带

    Figure  1.  Tectonic structure and location map of the study area

    图  2  研究区地形起伏度与大型滑坡分布图

    Figure  2.  Topographic relief and large landslide distribution map of the study area

    图  3  研究区主要活动断裂分布图

    Figure  3.  Distribution map of main active faults in the study area

    图  4  研究区典型崩塌发育特征

    Figure  4.  Development characteristics of typical collapses in the study area

    图  5  研究区典型降雨型滑坡发育特征

    Figure  5.  Derelepment characteristics of typical landslides triggered by rainfalls in the study area

    图  6  研究区典型地震滑坡发育特征

    Figure  6.  Develepment characteristics of typical seismic landslides in the study area

    图  7  研究区典型泥石流发育特征

    Figure  7.  Develepment characteristics of typical debris flows in the study area

    图  8  研究区成兰铁路隧道施工中发生的典型工程地质问题

    Figure  8.  Typical engineering geological problems during the railway construction along the Chengdu-Lanzhou Railway

    表  1  甘肃天水等城镇和成兰交通廊道沿线及邻区重要活动断裂特征与活动性一览表

    Table  1.   Characteristics and activity of important active faults in the study area and adjacent areas

    编号 断裂名称及断裂分段特征 活动性质 活动时代 活动速率(VH-水平活动速率,Vv-垂直活动速率,mm/a) 与铁路或重点城镇的关系
    1 龙门山前山断裂 江油-灌县断裂 逆冲兼右旋走滑 Q3~Q4 VH=5.0±,Vv≤0.5 与成兰铁路大角度相交
    江油-广元断裂 右旋走滑/逆冲 Q1~Q2 VH=1.54 与兰渝铁路大角度相交
    2 龙门山中央断裂 北川-映秀断裂 逆冲兼右旋走滑 Q3~Q4 VH=2.0~3.0,Vv=1.0± 与成兰铁路近于直交
    茶坝-林庵寺断裂 南段走滑,北段逆冲 南段Q4,北段Q1-2 VH=1.0-5.0,Vv≤1.0
    3 龙门山后山断裂 耿达-陇东断裂 逆冲兼右旋走滑 Q3~Q4
    茂县-汶川断裂 右旋走滑/逆冲 Q4 VH=1.4±,Vv=0.5-0.9 与成兰铁路近于直交
    平武-青川断裂 逆冲兼右旋走滑 Q3 VH=1.0±,Vv=0.5-0.7
    4 岷江断裂 左旋走滑,走滑 Q4 VH≤0.2,Vv=0.37~0.53 与成兰铁路平行展布,与成兰铁路多次斜交
    5 虎牙断裂 逆冲兼左旋走滑 Q4 VH=1.4~2.55,Vv=0.3~0.5
    6 雪山梁子断裂 右旋走滑 Q3 与成兰铁路近于直交
    7 龙日坝断裂 右旋兼逆断 Q4 VH=1~2,Vv=0.7
    8 哈南-稻畦子断裂 左旋走滑兼逆冲 Q4
    9 塔藏断裂 左旋走滑 Q4 VH=3.2~3.6,Vv=0.5~0.7 与成兰铁路大角度相交
    10 迭部-白龙江断裂 左旋走滑兼逆冲 Q3~Q4 VH=5.0±,Vv=0.2~0.3 与成兰铁路近于直交
    11 光盖山-迭山断裂 左旋走滑兼逆断 Q4 VH=0.51±0.13,Vv=0.49~1.15 与成兰铁路近于直交
    12 临潭-宕昌断裂 左旋走滑兼逆冲 Q3~Q4 VH=2.0~2.5 与成兰铁路近于直交
    13 礼县-罗家堡断裂 左旋兼正断 Q4 VH=0.64~1.25,Vv=0.24~0.47 穿越礼县县城
    14 西秦岭北缘断裂 天水-凤凰山断裂 左旋兼正断 Q3~Q4 VH=2.1~2.8,Vv=0.4~0.7 穿越天水市区
    甘谷-武山断裂 左旋走滑 Q4 VH=2.8 穿越甘谷县
    漳县断裂 左旋走滑 Q4 VH=2.5 影响漳县和武山县
    黄香沟断裂 左旋走滑兼正断 Q4 VH=2.3±0.2,Vv=0.28±0.08 与成兰铁路近于直交
    15 马衔山断裂 左旋走滑 Q4 VH=2.5~3.0, 与成兰铁路大角度相交
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-08-10
  • 刊出日期:  2017-10-01

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