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甘肃金川矿区古构造应力场恢复及演化研究

赵远方 施炜 张宇

赵远方,施炜,张宇,2023. 甘肃金川矿区古构造应力场恢复及演化研究[J]. 地质力学学报,29(6):770−785 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023161
引用本文: 赵远方,施炜,张宇,2023. 甘肃金川矿区古构造应力场恢复及演化研究[J]. 地质力学学报,29(6):770−785 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023161
ZHAO Y F,SHI W,ZHANG Y,2023. Study on the reconstruction of the paleo-tectonic stress field and its evolution in the Jinchuan mining district, Gansu Province, China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(6):770−785 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023161
Citation: ZHAO Y F,SHI W,ZHANG Y,2023. Study on the reconstruction of the paleo-tectonic stress field and its evolution in the Jinchuan mining district, Gansu Province, China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(6):770−785 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023161

甘肃金川矿区古构造应力场恢复及演化研究

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023161
基金项目: 中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20221644);国家自然科学基金项目(42302260);中国地质科学院基本科研业务费项目(DZLXJK202207)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵远方(1991—),男,博士,助理研究员,主要从事构造地质学方面的研究工作。E-mail:zhaoyuanfang12@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P535;P534.6

Study on the reconstruction of the paleo-tectonic stress field and its evolution in the Jinchuan mining district, Gansu Province, China

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Geological Survey Project of the China Geological Survey (Grant No.DD20221644), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.42302260), and the Basic Research Expense of the Chinese Academy of the Geological Sciences (Grant No. DZLXJK202207)
  • 摘要:

    金川矿区经历了复杂的构造演化历史,目前其成矿期后的构造变形特征和应力场演化阶段仍缺乏精细剖析。文章运用构造解析方法对金川矿区地表基岩中的断层进行了分期和配套,确定了构造变形序列,认为矿区存在4组重要的断层组合,包括北东向逆冲断层和北西向走滑断层、北东向走滑断层和北西向逆冲断层、北西向正断层以及北东东向走滑断层。通过研究断层破裂面及擦痕构造,利用赤平投影法恢复了断层的古构造应力场,结合区域大地构造演化历史,准确限定了金川矿区成矿期后的应力场演化阶段,对认识区域构造演化和开发新远景区具有重要意义。结果显示,金川矿区在成矿期后经历了4期古构造应力场作用,表现为多阶段不同方向的挤压和伸展过程,分别响应了区域中生代以来的一系列构造热事件,Ⅰ期表现为早—中侏罗世的北西—南东向挤压应力场,Ⅱ期为晚侏罗世的北东—南西向挤压应力场,Ⅲ期为早白垩世的北东—南西向伸展应力场,Ⅳ期为晚白垩世以来的北东—南西向挤压应力场。

     

  • 图  1  研究区大地构造位置和地质简图

    a—研究区大地构造位置图(据Wan et al.,2009修改);b—研究区地层和构造格架简图(据汤中立和李文渊,1995修改)

    Figure  1.  Geological map and tectonic setting of the study area

    (a) Map of the tectonic setting in the study area (modified after Wan et al., 2009);(b) Geological map of the study area (modified after Tang and Li, 1995)

    图  2  不同构造点的古构造应力特征

    σ1σ2σ3分别为最大、中间和最小主应力轴,数字代表应力轴倾向和倾角(°);P代表擦痕;L代表断层面;N为统计数量,(下图同);红色箭头代表挤压方向;橙色箭头代表伸展方向

    Figure  2.  Features of paleo-tectonic stress at different points

    σ1, σ2 and σ3 represent the maximum, intermediate and minimum principal stress axes respectively, the number represents inclination and dip angle of the stress axis; P represents striation, L represents fault plane, N represents statistical quantity; The red arrows represent the direction of compression, and the orange arrows represent the direction of extension.

    图  3  断层交切关系和叠加擦痕特征

    长箭头代表擦痕和对盘运动方向,数字①、②和③分别代表对应照片中的断层或擦痕期次;赤平投影图中红色箭头代表挤压方向,橙色箭头代表伸展方向a—LS10大理岩中倾向北西的断层面,早期擦痕显示为左旋斜滑运动,晚期擦痕显示为左旋走滑运动;b—LS12大理岩中发育3组断层,第1期为近东西向右旋走滑断层,第2期为北西向右旋走滑断层,第3期为北东向正断层;c—LS13大理岩中向南西陡倾的断层面,早期陡倾擦痕显示为上盘向南西的下滑,晚期缓倾擦痕显示为右旋走滑运动;d—LS21云母石英片岩中发育2组断层及牵引褶皱,早期为倾向南东的逆冲断层,晚期为倾向北东东的正断层;e—LS28大理岩中向南西陡倾的断层面发育3组擦痕,新生矿物为方解石,第1期擦痕指示右旋走滑运动,第2期擦痕指示左旋走滑运动,第3期擦痕指示向北东的逆冲;f—LS46云母石英片岩中倾向北东的断层面,早期擦痕指示上盘向北东下滑,晚期擦痕指示上盘向南的逆冲

    Figure  3.  The characteristics of fault intersection and superimposed striation

    (a) LS10 shows the fault dip to the NW developed in metamorphosed ultramafic rocks; the early striation indicates sinistral strike-slip motion associated with normal faulting, and the late striation indicated sinistral strike-slip motion; (b) LS12 shows three groups of faults developed in marble; the first group of faults with near E–W orientation shows dextral strike-slip motion, the second group of faults with NW orientation indicated dextral strike-slip motion, and the third stage is normal faults on NE orientation; (c) LS13 shows the fault dip to the SW developed in marble; the early striation indicated the top-to-the-SW downslide of the hanging wall, and the late striation show the dextral strike-slip motion; (d) LS21 shows two groups of faults with traction folds developed in mica-quartz schist; the early fault indicated the top-to-the NW thrust of the hanging wall, while the late fault indicated the top-to-the NEE downslide of the hanging wall; (e) LS28 shows three groups of striation developed on the fault dip to the SW with mineral represented by calcite in marble; The striation of the first stage indicated dextral strike-slip motion, the striation of the second stage indicated sinistral strike-slip motion, and the striation of the third stage indicated the top-to-the-NE thrust; (f) LS46 shows the NE trending fault developed in mica-quartz schist, early striation indicated the top-to-the NE downslide of the hanging wall, late striation indicate the top-to-the S thrust of the hanging wall. The long arrow represents the direction of striation and the motion of fault wall; Number ①, ② and ③ represent the stages of faults or striation in corresponding photo; In the stereographic projection, the red arrow represents the direction of compression while the orange arrow represents the direction of extension.

    图  4  北西—南东向挤压应力场形成的变形特征

    长箭头代表擦痕方向,①和①’代表共轭断层的两组断层面;赤平投影图中的红色箭头代表挤压方向,橙色箭头代表伸展方向a—LS17片麻状花岗岩中发育北西向右旋走滑断层,可见断层镜面和近水平擦痕构造;b—LS18片麻状花岗岩中近南北向左旋走滑断层和近东西向右旋走滑断层组成共轭断层;c—LS20大理岩中北西向右旋走滑断层和近东西向左旋走滑断层组成共轭断层;d—LS25大理岩中的不对称透镜体构造,指示上盘向南东方向逆冲

    Figure  4.  Typical deformation features under the NW–SE compression

    (a) LS17 shows the NW-trending dextral strike-slip fault developed in granitic gneiss with fault polish and low-angle striation; (b) LS18 shows the conjugated fault consists of the NS-trending sinistral strike-slip fault and the EW-trending dextral strike-slip fault developed in granitic gneiss; (c) LS20 shows the conjugated fault consists of the NW-trending dextral strike-slip fault and the EW-trending sinistral strike-slip fault developed in marble; (d) LS25 shows the asymmetric lens developed in marble indicated the top-to-the SE thrust of the hanging wall. The long arrow represents the direction of striation and the motion of fault wall; Number ① and ①’ represent the striation of the conjugated fault; In the stereographic projection, the red arrow represents the direction of compression while the orange arrow represents the direction of extension.

    图  5  北东—南西向挤压应力场(早期)形成的变形特征

    长箭头代表擦痕及对盘运动方向;赤平投影图中红色短箭头代表挤压方向,橙色箭头代表伸展方向a—LS16-2片麻状花岗岩中左旋走滑断层,断面上可见缓倾擦痕及正阶步构造;b—LS27大理岩中北东向左旋走滑断层带内的多米诺构造,断面发育缓倾擦痕;c—LS22大理岩中北西向逆冲断层组成破碎带和断层泥; d—LS11片麻岩夹大理岩地层中形成轴向南东的褶皱。

    Figure  5.  Typical deformation features under the NE–SW compression (early stage)

    (a) LS16-2 shows the sinistral strike-slip fault developed in granitic gneiss with fault step and low-angle striation on the fault plane; (b) LS27 shows the NE-trending sinistral strike-slip fault developed in marble with domino structures and low-angle striation; (c) LS22 shows the NW-trending thrust fault developed in marble with fracture zone and fault gouge; (d) LS11 shows the fold with axis dip to SE developed in gneiss with marble.The long arrow represents the direction of striation and the motion of fault wall; In the stereographic projection, the red arrow represents the direction of compression while the orange arrow represents the direction of extension.

    图  6  北东—南西向伸展应力场形成的变形特征

    长箭头代表擦痕及对盘运动方向;赤平投影图中橙色箭头代表伸展方向a—LS24大理岩中北西向的正断层局部组成断层镜面;b—LS13大理岩中北西向正断层,出现石棉和方解石等新生矿物;c—LS30大理岩中北西西向正断层发育方解石为主的新生矿物,正阶步指示上盘向北东方向下滑;d—LS35大理岩中北西西向正断层及擦痕,具新生的石棉、绢云母和方解石等矿物

    Figure  6.  Typical deformation features under the NE-SW extension

    (a) LS24 shows the NW-trending normal fault developed in marble with fault polish; (b) LS13 shows the NW-trending normal fault developed in marble with new-born minerals of calcite and asbestos; (c) LS30 shows the NWN-trending normal fault developed in marble with new-born mineral of calcite, the positive fault step indicated the top-to-the NE downslide of the hanging wall; (d) LS35 shows the NWW-trending normal fault developed in marble with new-born minerals of asbestos, sericite and calcite. The long arrow represents the direction of striation and the motion of fault wall; The orange arrow represents the direction of extension in the stereographic projection.

    图  7  北东—南西向挤压应力场(晚期)形成的变形特征

    长箭头代表擦痕及对盘运动方向,数字①和②代表擦痕期次;赤平投影图中红色短箭头代表挤压方向,橙色箭头代表伸展方向a—LS16-1 片麻状花岗岩逆冲到大理岩之上,主断层面倾向南西;b—LS24花岗岩中北西向左旋走滑断层面及斜向擦痕构造;c—LS37大理岩中北西西向左旋走滑断层面和缓倾的擦痕构造,新生矿物为方解石,局部形成灰黑色炭质;d—LS29大理岩中北西西向断层面上叠加了两组不同方向的擦痕,早期指示左旋走滑而晚期指示上盘向北东的逆冲作用,显示存在两期北东—南西向挤压应力

    Figure  7.  Typical deformation features under the NE–SW compression (late stage)

    (a) LS16-1 shows the thrust of the granitic gneiss as the hanging wall to the marbles as the footwall, the main fault plane dips to the SW; (b) LS24 shows the NW-trending sinistral strike-slip fault developed in granite with oblique striation; (c) LS37 shows the WNW-trending sinistral strike-slip fault and gentle striation developed in marble with new-born calcite and carbon; (d) LS29 shows the superimposition of two groups of striation on the NWW-trending fault plane, the early striation indicated the sinistral strike-slip faulting and the later one indicated the top-to-the NE thrust which showed the existence of two stages of NE–SW compression. The long arrow represents the direction of striation and the motion of fault wall; In the stereographic projection, the red arrow represents the direction of compression while the orange arrow represents the direction of extension.

    图  8  金川矿区成矿期后的构造演化模式图

    a—Ⅰ期为早—中侏罗世挤压作用,矿区形成北西向走滑断层和北东向逆冲断层;b—Ⅱ期为晚侏罗世的—挤压作用,矿区形成北东向走滑断层,北西向逆冲断层活化;c—Ⅲ期为早白垩世的伸展作用,矿区形成北西向正断层,部分早期断层性质发生反转;d—Ⅳ期为晚白垩世以来的挤压作用,矿区形成北东东向走滑断层,北西向逆断层活化,地层沿北东—南西方向强烈缩短

    Figure  8.  Tectonic evolution model of Jinchuan mining district since the mineralization

    (a) Phase Ⅰ showed a NW–SE compression during the Early to Middle Jurassic, and the mining district mainly formed the NW-trending strike-slip faults and NE-trending thrust faults; (b) Phase Ⅱ showed a NE–SW compression during the Late Jurassic; the NE-trending strike-slip faults were formed and the NW-trending thrust faults were activated in the mining district; (c) Phase Ⅲ showed a NE–SW extension during the Early Cretaceous, the mining district formed the NW-trending normal faults and kinematics of some early faults reversed; (d) Phase Ⅳ showed a NE–SW compression since the Late Cretaceous; the mining district formed a series of NEE-trending strike-slip faults, and the NW-trending thrust faults were activated and the strata were intensely shortened along the NE–SW direction.

    表  1  金川矿区叠加变形构造点的断层性质及应力特征

    Table  1.   Geometry, kinematics and stress features of faults on structural points with superimposition deformation in the Jinchuan mining district

    构造点断层倾向断层倾角擦痕侧伏向擦痕侧伏角断层性质新生矿物应力方向
    LS10 313° 81° 253° 64° 左旋斜滑 方解石 北东—南西挤压
    40° 15° 左旋走滑 方解石 北东—南西挤压
    LS12 87° 93° 10° 右旋走滑 石棉  北西—南东挤压
    73° 76° 283° 25° 右旋走滑 石棉  北东—南西挤压
    147° 65° 176° 60° 正断层  无   北东—南西伸展
    LS13 223° 70° 183° 63° 正断层  石棉  北东—南西伸展
    312° 32° 右旋走滑 石棉  北东—南西挤压
    LS21 132° 27° 112° 23° 逆冲   无   北西—南东挤压
    80° 37° 70° 33° 正断层  无   北东—南西伸展
    LS28 196° 83° 264° 12° 右旋走滑 方解石 北西—南东挤压
    123° 30° 左旋斜滑 方解石 北东—南西挤压
    212° 75° 逆冲   方解石 北东—南西挤压
    LS46 26° 64° 60° 52° 正断层  无   北东—南西伸展
    334° 55° 逆冲   云母  北东—南西挤压
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-28
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-09
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