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川南马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组沉积相特征及磷成矿模式研究

李佐强 陈敏 卢君勇 阳开龙 唐茂林 朱荣涛

李佐强,陈敏,卢君勇,等,2023. 川南马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组沉积相特征及磷成矿模式研究[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):34−47 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022051
引用本文: 李佐强,陈敏,卢君勇,等,2023. 川南马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组沉积相特征及磷成矿模式研究[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):34−47 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022051
LI Z Q,CHEN M,LU J Y,et al.,2023. Sedimentary facies characteristics and metallogenic model of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County, southern Sichuan[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):34−47 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022051
Citation: LI Z Q,CHEN M,LU J Y,et al.,2023. Sedimentary facies characteristics and metallogenic model of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County, southern Sichuan[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):34−47 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022051

川南马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组沉积相特征及磷成矿模式研究

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022051
基金项目: 四川省政府性投资地质勘查项目(DZ202105)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李佐强(1995—),男,硕士,助理工程师,主要从事地质调查及矿产勘查工作。E-mail: lzqycdut@163.com

    通讯作者:

    陈敏(1985—),男,高级工程师,主要从事矿产勘查及评价工作。E-mail: 37255525@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P611.2+2

Sedimentary facies characteristics and metallogenic model of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County, southern Sichuan

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Geological Exploration Program invested by the Sichuan Government (Grant DZ202105).
  • 摘要: 川南马边地区下寒武统麦地坪组是昆阳式磷矿的重要赋矿层位,磷矿的分布受沉积古环境控制。以马边黄家坪地区麦地坪组含磷地层野外剖面实测及钻孔岩芯观察为基础,对麦地坪组沉积相特征、磷块岩特征、磷矿成因模式进行了详细研究。研究表明:黄家坪地区麦地坪组发育碳酸盐岩潮坪相沉积,可识别出潮上坪、潮间坪和潮下坪3个亚相共计6种微相类型:潮上坪包括潮上滩和潮上云坪微相;潮间坪包括潮汐水道、潮间滩、潮间灰坪;潮下坪则仅发育低能潮下坪,垂向上表现出海退−海侵的沉积演化序列。据此建立了麦地坪组海湾潮坪相沉积模式。磷块岩的富集严格受沉积相带控制,潮间坪内高能水动力的潮间滩和潮汐水道是最有利于磷块岩形成的微相环境,砂砾屑磷块岩是马边地区发育较为广泛的磷块岩类型。磷矿床的成矿模式为上升洋流将富磷海水带入到海湾潮坪环境内,受生物−化学作用使磷以胶体−化学的形式发生凝聚富集,形成半固结—弱固结的磷酸盐沉积物,后遭受水流的冲刷、破碎、搬运、簸选再次发生沉淀,经压实、固结即形成高品位的磷块岩。

     

  • 图  1  研究区区域地质背景图

    a—中上扬子区早寒武世梅树村期沉积古地理图(牟传龙等,2012);b—四川马边县黄家坪磷矿北东部矿区地质简图

    Figure  1.  Regional geological map of the study area

    (a) Sedimentary facies and palaeogeography in the middle-upper Yangtze area during the Early Cambrian Meishucunian (Mou et al., 2012); (b) Geological sketch of northeast Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County, Sichuan Province

    图  2  马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组沉积相综合柱状图

    Figure  2.  Synthetical histogram of sedimentary facies of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County

    图  3  马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组典型沉积特征和显微镜下特征

    Є1 m 1—麦地坪组一段;Є1 m 2—麦地坪组二段;Z2 dn 4—灯影组四段a—麦地坪组宏观照;b—磷矿层宏观照(图3a中方框放大),箭头处见硅质白云岩透镜体;c—水云母黏土岩;d—瘤状灰岩;e—筇竹寺组炭质泥岩与麦地坪组白云岩呈平行不整合接触;f—含磷质砾屑白云岩,砾屑杂乱分布;g—砂屑磷块岩,砂屑多呈圆形、椭圆形,填隙物多为不规则状泥晶胶磷矿及白云石(+);h—砂砾屑磷块岩,发育多期冲刷面、正粒序层理组成的沉积序列;i—砂砾屑磷块岩,发育多期冲刷面、正粒序层理组成的沉积序列

    Figure  3.  Typical sedimentary features and microscopic characteristics of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County

    (a) Macrophotograph of the Maidiping formation; (b) Macrophotograph of the phosphorite layer (enlarged by the box in Fig 3a), and siliceous dolomitite lenticle is seen at the arrow; (c) Hydromica clay rock; (d) Nodular limestone; (e) The carbonaceous mudstone of the Qiongzhusi formation is in disconformity with the dolomites of the Maidiping formation; (f) Phosphorus-bearing dolomite with phosphorus gravels disorderly distributed; (g) Arenite phosphorite, mostly with round, oval arenite and irregular micritecollophanite and dolomite as interstitial materials (+); (h) Sand-gravel phosphorite, developed with a sedimentary sequence consisting of multi-stage scouring surface and normal graded bedding; (i) Sand-gravel phosphorite, developed with a sedimentary sequence consisting of multi-stage erosion surface and normal graded bedding Є1 m 1–the first member of the Maidiping formation; Є1 m 2–the second member of the Maidiping formation; Z2 dn 4–the fourth member of the Dengying formation

    图  4  马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组一段磷矿层沉积特征和显微结构特征

    a—条纹条带状磷块岩,夹硅质透镜体,磷块岩呈透镜状断续分布;b—致密块状砂砾屑磷块岩,夹少量白云质条纹;c—含磷白云岩,发育脉状层理;d—砂砾屑磷块岩,发育微波状层理;e—砂屑磷块岩,发育磷质鲕粒结构,磷质颗粒周缘发育磷质环边包壳,长轴方向具有一定定向性(+);f—硅质白云岩,发育硅质条带、水平纹层;g—含磷硅质白云岩,夹硅质透镜体; h—含磷细晶白云岩(+);i—磷质细晶白云岩,胶磷矿多为椭球型或不规则型砂屑(+);j—含磷硅质白云岩,夹硅质透镜体,具水平层理;k—含磷水云母黏土岩,具水平层理

    Figure  4.  Sedimentary features and microstructures of phosphate rocks in the first member of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County

    (a) Banded phosphorite, intercalated with siliceous lenticle, is intermittently distributed in a lenticular pattern; (b) Dense massive sand-gravel phosphorite interspersed with dolomite stripes; (c) Phosphorus-bearing dolomite with veined beddings; (d) Sand-gravel phosphorite with micro wavy beddings; (e) Arenite phosphorite, with phosphorus oolitic structure. Phosphorus crust is developed around the grain, with certain orientation along the long axis (+); (f) Siliceous dolomitite with siliceous bands and horizontal laminations; (g) Phosphorus-bearing siliceous dolomitite intercalated with siliceous lenticular; (h) Phosphorus-bearing fine-crystalline dolomite (+); (i) Phosphorous fine-crystalline dolomite, and collophanites are mostly ellipsoid or irregular arenes (+); (j) Phosphorus-bearing siliceous dolomitite intercalated with siliceous lenticular and horizontal beddings; (k) Phosphorus-bearing hydromica clay rock with horizontal beddings

    图  5  马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组二段沉积构造和显微镜下特征

    a—黏土岩,具泥状结构(+);b—瘤状灰岩,瘤体内含较多生物碎屑及磷质砾屑,瘤体边缘有明显的溶蚀痕迹,基质为泥质;c—瘤状灰岩(图5b中方框放大);d—含磷屑细晶白云岩,见部分胶磷矿砾屑包裹细小白云石、石英颗粒(+);e—含磷屑砾屑白云岩,可见棒状砾屑直立分布;f—含磷质砾屑细晶白云岩,砾屑具定向性;g—细−粉晶白云岩,发育鸟眼构造;h—含磷屑白云岩,发育齿状石膏溶孔

    Figure  5.  Sedimentary characteristics and microscopic characteristics of of the second member of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit of Mabian County

    (a) Clay rock with muddy texture (+); (b) Nodular limestone with bioclasts and phosphorous gravels in the tumour-body and obvious corrosion traces at the edge of the tumour-body, and the matrix is argillaceous; (c) Nodular limestone (enlarged by the box in Fig 5b); (d) Phosphorus-bearing fine-crystalline dolomites with some collophanite gravels wrapped with fine dolomite and quartz particles (+); (e) Phosphorus-bearing dolorudite with rodlike gravel-sized grain vertical distributed; (f) Phosphorus-bearing fine-crystalline dolostones with orientation; (g) Fine-powder crystalline dolostones with bird’s eye structure; (h) Phosphorus-bearing dolomite with dentoid gypsum dissolution pores

    图  6  马边黄家坪磷矿下寒武统麦地坪组磷成矿模式图

    a—麦地坪组沉积模式图;b—磷块岩富集模式图(①、②、③分别对应图6a中位置;①为磷初始富集阶段,受间歇性水流冲刷,形成少量纹层状或条带状含磷沉积物,②、③为后期受强水流冲刷、簸选作用,分别形成高品位条纹条带状磷块岩或致密块状磷块岩)

    Figure  6.  Phosphorus mineralization model of the lower Cambrian Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County

    (a) Sedimentary model of the Maidiping formation; (b) Enrichment model of phosphorite, and ①, ② and ③ correspond to the positions in Fig. 6a respectively. ① represents the initial phosphorite enrichment stage, in which a small amount of laminar or banded phosphorus sediments were formed by the intermittent water scouring; ② and ③ are the later stages, where high-grade striped or dense massive phosphorites were formed under the action of scouring and winnowing, respectively.

    表  1  马边黄家坪磷矿区麦地坪组沉积相带划分简表

    Table  1.   Summary table of the sedimentary facies in the Maidiping formation in the Huangjiaping phosphate deposit, Mabian County

    亚相微相水动力岩性特征层厚沉积构造
    潮坪 潮上坪 潮上云坪 低能 细−粉晶白云岩 薄层 鸟眼构造
    石膏溶孔
    潮上滩 间歇高能 砂砾屑白云岩
    含磷砂砾屑白云岩
    薄层 冲刷面
    粒序层理
    潮间坪 潮汐水道 高能 砂砾屑磷块岩
    含磷细晶白云岩
    中—薄层 冲刷面
    粒序层理
    潮间滩 高能 砂砾屑磷块岩
    含磷砂屑白云岩
    中—薄层 脉状层理
    微波状层理
    条带状构造
    潮间灰坪 低能 瘤状灰岩
    含磷细晶白云岩
    硅质白云岩
    薄—厚层 水平层理
    偶见冲刷面
    潮下坪 低能潮下坪 低能 泥质白云岩
    含泥质灰质白云岩
    中—厚层 /
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-04-26
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