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西藏冈底斯中段南缘叶巴岩群膝折构造及其地质意义

西洛郎杰 王根厚 曾庆高 冯翼鹏 次旦 韩宁 张培烈 魏延嵩 王伟屹

西洛郎杰, 王根厚, 曾庆高, 等, 2022. 西藏冈底斯中段南缘叶巴岩群膝折构造及其地质意义. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 338-352. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021163
引用本文: 西洛郎杰, 王根厚, 曾庆高, 等, 2022. 西藏冈底斯中段南缘叶巴岩群膝折构造及其地质意义. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 338-352. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021163
XILUO Langjie, WANG Genhou, ZENG Qinggao, et al., 2022. The kinks of the Yeba Group in the southern margin of the central Gangdese of Tibet and its geological significance. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 338-352. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021163
Citation: XILUO Langjie, WANG Genhou, ZENG Qinggao, et al., 2022. The kinks of the Yeba Group in the southern margin of the central Gangdese of Tibet and its geological significance. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 338-352. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021163

西藏冈底斯中段南缘叶巴岩群膝折构造及其地质意义

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021163
基金项目: 

西藏地勘局局管专项科研资金项目 42172259

国家自然科学基金项目 1212011221115

详细信息
    作者简介:

    西洛郎杰(1973—)男, 高级工程师, 从事区域地质调查和矿产勘查工作。E-mail: 741387328@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    王根厚(1963—), 男, 教授, 博士研究生导师, 从事构造地质学和区域构造研究。E-mail: wgh@cugb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P548

The kinks of the Yeba Group in the southern margin of the central Gangdese of Tibet and its geological significance

Funds: 

the Specialized Scientific Research Fund of Geological and Mineral Exploration Development Bureau of Tibet Autonomous Region 42172259

National Natural Science Foundation of China 1212011221115

  • 摘要: 位于冈底斯南缘的叶巴岩群内发育着复杂的构造变形,是典型的构造转换带,已有证据表明这些复杂的构造变形与发育在叶巴岩群中的驱龙、甲玛等大型矿床的形成密切相关,其中大量发育的膝折构造是脆-韧性转换构造带中的代表。此次研究工作的主要对象为叶巴岩群内部的膝折构造,研究其分布特征、变形及扩容方式,分析其运动学特征及温度环境,结合构造变形时代探究其形成的大地构造背景。绿泥石温度计及方解石e双晶特征实验结果显示研究区膝折构造形成温度环境在170~299℃之间,表明研究区膝折构造形成的过程伴随着构造抬升。根据宏观露头及显微视域对于膝折构造的运动学特征分析,判断主压应力方向为自上而下(铅直向下),这一以垂向挤压的重力为主的主应力方向与该时期的冈底斯南缘大规模南北向滑覆构造的主压应力一致,研究结果认为发育于叶巴岩群内部的浅部膝折构造为25 Ma以来南拉萨地体伸展滑覆构造背景之下的变形作用的产物。

     

  • 图  1  拉萨地体大地构造位置图及研究区地质图

    BNS—班公-怒江缝合带;HFTB—喜马拉雅褶皱逆冲带;IYS—印度-雅江缝合带;MBT—主边界断裂;STDS—藏南拆离系
    a—拉萨地体大地构造简图;b—南冈底斯带达孜县—墨竹工卡县叶巴岩群地质简图(研究区地质图)

    Figure  1.  Simplified tectonic map of the Lhasa terrane and geologic map of the study area

    (a)Simplified tectonic map of the Lhasa terrane; (b) Simplified geologic map of Dazi-Mozhugongka in southern Gandese (the study area)
    BNS-Bangong-Nujiang suture zone; HFTB-Himalayan fold-thrust belt; IYS-Indus-Yarlu suture zone; MBT-Main boundary fault; STDS-Southern Tibet detachment system

    图  2  叶巴岩群膝折轴面及枢纽产状图

    极射持平投影图中蓝色—红色代表点密度逐渐增大

    Figure  2.  Attitudes in the axial surface and hinge of the kinks in the Yeba Group

    Color from blue to red in the Equal-area stereographic projections represents the gradual increase in point density

    图  3  膝折构造宏观特征

    a—多底沟组灰岩张裂脉;b—弯滑型膝折转折端;c—二云母片岩中指示自上而下滑覆的膝折构造

    Figure  3.  Macroscopic characteristics of kinks

    (a) Tensile vein in a limestone from the Duodigou formation; (b) Hinge zone in a flexural-slip kink; (c) Kinks in a two-mica schist indicating a top-down gliding nappe

    图  4  共轭膝折带及尖棱褶皱

    σ1—主应力
    a—二云母片岩中发育的共轭膝折带;b—共轭膝折带素描图;c—千枚岩发育的尖棱褶皱;d—尖棱褶皱素描图

    Figure  4.  Conjugate kink-band and angular fold

    (a) Conjugate kink-band developed in two-mica schist; (b)Sketch of conjugate kink-band; (c) Angular fold developed in phyllite; (d) Sketch of angular fold
    σ1-Principal stress

    图  5  膝折构造显微构造特征(照片均为单偏光下X-Z面定向薄片)

    σ1—主应力
    a—二云母片岩右旋膝折构造;b—右旋膝折;c—黑云母及白云母弯曲形成膝折;d—膝折构造改造S1面理;e—同构造变形绿泥石形成膝折构造;f—由共轭膝折构造递进变形形成的尖棱褶皱

    Figure  5.  Microstructural characteristics of kinks (All photos are X-Z plane oriented slices under single polarized light)

    (a) Dextral kinks of two-mica schist; (b) Dextral kinks; (c) Kinks formed by biotite and muscovite; (d) S1 foliation reconstructed by kinks; (e) Kinks formed by syntectonic deformed chlorite; (f) Angular fold formed by progressive deformation of conjugate kinks
    σ1-Principal stress

    图  6  膝折带内外岩层顺层滑动对膝折带内、外角关系的效果图

    α—膝折带边界与未旋转面之间的夹角;β—膝折边界与旋转面之间的夹角
    a—初始状态(β=α);b—膝折带外侧岩层滑动(βα);c—膝折带内侧岩层滑动(βα)

    Figure  6.  Diagram showing the bedding sliding of plane inside and outside the kink-band on the relationship between the inner and outer corners of the kinks

    (a) initial state (β=α); (b) Kinks with lateral rock slide (β > α); (c) Kinks with medial rock slide (β < α)
    α is the included angle between the kinks boundary and the non rotating surface, β is the included angle between the kinks boundary and the rotating surface

    图  7  膝折扩容类型

    Q—石英;Pl—长石;Chl—绿泥石;Mt—磁铁矿;α—膝折带边界与未旋转面之间的夹角;β—膝折边界与旋转面之间的夹角
    a—膝折显微构造特征(单偏光,X-Z面);b—膝折变形及扩容方式示意图(显微尺度);c—膝折宏观构造特征;d—膝折变形及扩容方式示意图(宏观尺度)

    Figure  7.  Modes of kink expansion

    (a) Microstructural characteristics of kinks (Single polarized light, X-Z plane); (b) Schematic diagram of kink deformation and expansion mode (microscale); (c) Macrostructural characteristics of kinks; (d) Schematic diagram of kink deformation and expansion mode (macroscale)
    Q-Quartz; Pl-Feldspar; Chl-Chlorite; Mt-Magnetite; α is the included angle between the kink boundary and the non-rotating surface, β is the included angle between the kink boundary and the rotating surface

    图  8  不同温度下方解石e双晶不同类型的显微示意图(据Ferrill et al., 2004修改)

    Figure  8.  Schematic diagram showing different types of calcite e-twins at different temperatures (modified from Ferrill et al., 2004)

    图  9  绿泥石变种分类图解

    Figure  9.  Classification diagram of chlorite variants

    图  10  BSE视域及显微尺度下的电子探针点位图

    Ab—钠长石;Bi—黑云母;Chl—绿泥石;Cal—方解石;Ep—绿帘石;Ttn—榍石;Q—石英
    a—X-Z面,BSE视域下的膝折构造(样品D2089-Db1); b—X-Z面,BSE视域下的膝折构造(样品PM002-35-Db1); c—X-Z面,单偏光视域下的膝折构造(样品D2089-Db1);d—X-Z面,单偏光视域下的膝折构造(样品PM002-35-Db1)

    Figure  10.  BSE-based images of electron probe point at a microscale

    (a) BSE-based image of kinks, sample D2089-Db1, X-Z plane; (b) BSE-based image of kinks, sample PM002-35-Db1, X-Z plane; (c) BSE-based image of kinks, sample D2089-Db1, X-Z plane; (d) BSE-based image of kinks, sample PM002-35-Db1, X-Z plane
    Ab-Albite; Bi-Biotite; Chl-Chlorite; Cal-Calcite; Ep-Epidote; Ttn-Titanite; Q-Quartz

    图  11  方解石e双晶显微照片(正交偏光,X-Z面)

    Cal—方解石
    a—发育Ⅰ型为主的e双晶;b—发育Ⅱ型为主的e双晶

    Figure  11.  Micrographs of calcite e-twins (Orthogonally polarized; X-Z plane)

    (a) E-twins dominated by type Ⅰ; (b) E-twins dominated by type Ⅱ

    图  12  藏南碰撞带结构构造剖面图(据赵文津等,2016修改)

    MCT—主中央逆冲断裂;MFT—主前缘逆冲断裂;MBT—主边界断裂;MHT—主喜马拉雅逆冲断裂(或拆离层);STDS—藏南拆离系

    Figure  12.  Structural profile of the southern Tibet collision zone (modified from Zhao et al., 2016)

    MCT-Main central thrust fault; MFT-Main front thrust fault; MBT-Main boundary fault; MHT-Main Himalayan thrust fault (detachment fault); STDS-Southern Tibet detachment system

    表  1  绿泥石电子探针数据和主要参数计算结果

    Table  1.   Electron probe data of chlorite and calculation results of main parameters

    样品号 D2083-Db-1-1 D2083-Db2-1-2 D2083-Db2-1-3 D2083-Db2-1-4 D2083-Db2-1-5 D3053-Db1-1-1 D3053-Db1-1-2 D3053-Db1-1-3 D3053-Db1-1-4 D3053-Db1-1-5 D3053-Db1-1-6 D3053-Db1-1-7
    单位:%
    SiO2 26.22 25.81 25.69 25.46 24.35 27.67 27.89 27.26 26.96 26.91 26.23 27.55
    TiO2 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00
    Al2O3 16.37 15.31 17.33 16.25 15.30 15.84 16.01 15.48 15.61 15.46 14.89 15.99
    Cr2O3 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.01 0.06 0.08 0.18 0.17 0.00 0.11 0.14 0.02
    FeOT 37.36 37.19 37.59 38.29 37.62 29.13 29.14 29.26 28.54 29.08 29.07 28.39
    MnO 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.83 1.08 1.00 0.98 0.93 0.97 1.00
    MgO 6.29 7.10 6.01 5.67 5.74 12.75 12.76 12.60 12.66 12.35 12.17 12.81
    CaO 0.08 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.07 0.01
    Na2O 0.10 0.08 0.19 0.00 0.17 0.02 0.13 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02
    K2O 0.08 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01
    Total 86.83 85.97 87.25 86.02 83.65 86.45 87.29 85.94 84.95 85.00 83.59 85.81
    单位:×10-6
    Si 5.99 5.98 5.85 5.92 5.86 6.07 6.06 6.04 6.02 6.03 6.00 6.07
    Ti 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    Al 4.41 4.18 4.65 4.45 4.34 4.10 4.10 4.04 4.11 4.08 4.02 4.15
    Cr 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.00
    Fe3+ 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    Fe2+ 7.14 7.20 7.16 7.44 7.57 5.34 5.30 5.42 5.33 5.45 5.56 5.23
    Mn 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.15 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.19
    Mg 2.14 2.45 2.04 1.96 2.06 4.17 4.13 4.16 4.22 4.12 4.15 4.21
    Ca 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.00
    Na 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.00 0.08 0.01 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01
    K 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    Total 19.83 19.95 19.86 19.85 20.00 19.88 19.90 19.94 19.93 19.93 19.99 19.86
    单位:℃
    AlIV 2.01 2.02 2.15 2.08 2.14 1.93 1.94 1.96 1.98 1.97 2.00 1.93
    AlVI 2.40 2.16 2.50 2.37 2.20 2.16 2.16 2.08 2.14 2.11 2.02 2.22
    T1 230.87 232.25 246.15 238.52 245.09 222.72 223.47 225.76 227.54 226.86 229.60 222.83
    T2 287.94 287.62 303.90 297.23 303.42 264.39 265.14 267.74 268.97 269.09 272.10 263.95
    T3 261.37 263.48 284.59 273.00 282.98 249.00 250.14 253.62 256.32 255.29 259.45 249.17
    T4 275.84 277.19 299.13 288.06 297.78 256.96 258.09 261.67 264.11 263.43 267.67 256.89
    注:AlIV—四次配位的Al原子数;AlVI—六次配位的Al原子数;T1-T4—公式(1)-(4)计算
    下载: 导出CSV
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