Volume 29 Issue 4
Aug.  2023
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
MA J,XIE F,SHI B Y,et al.,2023. Characteristics and geological significance of the palynological assemblages of the Qingshuiying Formation in the Beilianchi section, northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(4):555−568 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023012
Citation: MA J,XIE F,SHI B Y,et al.,2023. Characteristics and geological significance of the palynological assemblages of the Qingshuiying Formation in the Beilianchi section, northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(4):555−568 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023012

Characteristics and geological significance of the palynological assemblages of the Qingshuiying Formation in the Beilianchi section, northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023012
Funds:  This research is financially supported by the Project of the Department of Finance of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Grant NXCZ20220204).
More Information
  • Received: 2023-02-07
  • Revised: 2023-07-03
  • Accepted: 2023-07-05
  • Available Online: 2023-07-05
  • The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is one of the most important geological events in the Cenozoic era, which has had a far-reaching impact on climate change in neighboring regions and even the world. Scholars have already considered that the uplift of this period has a good coupling with the warm and cold climate changes. The Beilianchi section is west of Liupan Mountain, the back edge of the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The Paleocene Qingshuiying Formation is mainly a set of shallow lacustrine deposits dominated by purple-red mudstone with thin gypsum layers containing rich paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information. The article systematically studied the palynological assemblage of the Beilianchi section and identified 60 genera and 65 species of sporopollen types as well as several undetermined species. The assemblage is characterized by dominant angiosperm pollen grains and rare gymnosperm pollen and fern spores. Based on the existing research results of regional sporopollen, the geologic age of the Qingshuiying Formation is believed to be the middle-late Oligocene–early Miocene. The sporopollen flora is dominated by deciduous broad-leaved plants such as Betulaceae, Juglandaceae, and Ulmaceae, and pollens from a few but diverse tropical-subtropical plants also occur in the assemblage. In contrast, the pollen content of typical arid shrubs and herbaceous plants is small, generally reflecting the warm-temperate zone's milder and wetter paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic background. The absence of pollen from cold-tolerant mountain conifers in the palynological assemblage indicates that the regional climatic environment had not yet changed from warm to cold during this period and that the uplift and expansion of the Tibetan Plateau to the northeast had not yet affected the Liupanshan area. The results of this study provide new evidence to constrain the depositional age of the Qingshuiying Formation on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the impact of the uplift process of the Tibetan Plateau on the paleoecology and paleoclimate of the region.


  • loading
  • [1]
    DUPONT-NIVET G, KRIJGSMAN W, LANGEREIS C G, et al. , 2007. Tibetan Plateau aridification linked to global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene transition[J]. Nature, 445(7128): 635-638. doi: 10.1038/nature05516
    Exploration and Development Institute of Qinghai Petroleum Administration, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1985. Tertiary palynology of Qaidam Basin[M]. Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press. (in Chinese)
    FANG X M, 2017. Phased uplift of the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Science & Technology Review, 35(6): 42-50. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    GESHIDEKOVA, GRICHUK, ZAKLINSKAYA, et al. , 1956. Pollen analysis[M]. WANG F X, ZHANG J T, MA Y Q, et al. , trans. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
    JIANG F Y, JI L Y, ZHAO Q, 2021. Numerical simulation of the present seismic risk of the Haiyuan-Liupanshan fault zone[J]. Journal of Geomechanics, 27(2): 230-240. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    JIANG H C, DING Z L, 2008. A 20Ma pollen record of east-Asian summer monsoon evolution from Guyuan, Ningxia, China[J]. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 265(1-2): 30-38. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.04.016
    JIANG H C, JI J L, GAO L, et al. , 2008. Cooling-driven climate change at 12-11Ma: multiproxy records from a long fluviolacustrine sequence at Guyuan, Ningxia, China[J]. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 265(1-2): 148-158. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.05.006
    KOU L L, LI Z H, DONG X P, et al. , 2021. The age sequence of the detrital zircons from the Guanyindian section in Longde, the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, and its geological significance[J]. Journal of Geomechanics, 27(6): 1051-1064. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    LI M T, LI L M, LIANG Z R, 2020. Geochemical characteristics and their significances of the Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary rocks in the Tongxin area, Ningxia, China[J]. Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, 39(2): 304-318. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    MIAO Y F, FANG X M, SONG Z C, et al. , 2008. Eocenesporopollen records and paleo-environmental changes in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Scientia Sinica Terrae, 38(2): 187-196. (in Chinese)
    Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, 1990. Regional geology of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region[M]. Beijing: Geology Press. (in Chinese)
    Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Geological Survey Institute, 2017. Regional geology of China: Ningxia[M]. Beijing: Geology Press. (in Chinese)
    Palynology Section, Morphological Department, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1960. Plant pollen morphology in China[M]. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
    PAN J L, MA X D, MA Y X, et al. , 2022. Geochemistry characteristics of Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary rocks in the Lingwu area of Yinchuan Basin, Ningxia and its enlightenment for paleoenvironmental evolution[J]. Geological Bulletin of China, 41(2-3): 296-305. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    SHEN X H, TIAN Q J, DING G Y, et al. , 2001. The Late Cenozxic stratigraphic sequence and its implication to Tectuic evolution Hejiakouzi area Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region[J]. Earthquake Research in China, 17(2): 156-166. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    SHI W, DONG S W, HU J M, 2020. Neotectonics around the Ordos Block, North China: a review and new insights[J]. Earth-Science Reviews, 200: 102969. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102969
    SONG Z C, ZHENG Y H, LI M Y, et al. , 1999. Fossil spores and pollen of China (vol. 1)[M]. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
    SUN S Y, 1982. Oligocene spore and pollen assemblages from the Tongxin district of Ningxia[C]//Collected Works of Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (4). Beijing: Geology Press: 130-141. (in Chinese)
    SUN X Y, ZHAO Y N, HE Z S, 1984. The Oligocene-Miocene palynological assemblages from the Xining-Minghe Basin, Qinghai Province[J]. Geological Review, 30(3): 207-216. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    TAO M H, WANG K F, ZHENG G G, et al. , 2001. Early Tertiary sporopollen assemblages from Jizhong depression and their stratigraphic implication[J]. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 18(3): 274-292. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    WANG B Y, YAN Z Q, LU Y J, et al. , 1994. Discovery of two Mid-Tertiary mammalian faunas from Haiyuan, Ningxia, China[J]. Vertebrata Palasiatica, 32(4): 285-296. (in Chinese)
    WANG W T, ZHANG P Z, ZHANG G L, et al. , 2010. Cenozoic sedimentary evolution of the Sikouzi Basin on the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its tectonic significance[J]. Chinese Journal of Geology, 45(2): 440-452. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    WANG W T, 2012. Sedimentary evolution of Cenozoic basin in southern Ningxia and its response to tectonic deformation in northeast corner of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Recent Developments in World Seismology(10): 40-43. (in Chinese)
    WANG W T, ZHENG D D, PANG J Z, 2013. Provenancial tracing for the Cenozoic Sikouzi section in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its tectonic implications[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 87(10): 1551-1569. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    WANG X Z, ZHOU S F, XU S J, 1979. Discussions on the palaeogeography and palaeoclimatology of the Late Eocene epoch and Oligocene epoch North Jiangsu[J]. Acta Botanica Sinica, 21(2): 149-156. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    WU F L, FANG X M, YANG Y B, et al. , 2022. Reorganization of Asian climate in relation to Tibetan Plateau uplift[J]. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 3(10): 684-700.
    WU X L, LI R X, HU J M, et al. , 2017. Late Paleogene saline lake evolution of the Ningnan Basin, Northern China, and its regional geological significance[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 91(4): 954-967. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    WU X L, LI R X, HU J M, et al. , 2018. Late Paleogene saline lake evolution of the Ningnan Basin and its response to the regional paleoclimate and uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: evidence from sedimentary strata, and S and Sr isotopes[J]. Geological Journal, 53(S2): 405-416.
    WU X L, LI R X, LI X G, et al. , 2023. Late Paleogene climate change and its driving mechanism in the Ningnan Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau[J]. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 41(1): 206-218. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    WU Z H, WU Z H, YE P S, et al. , 2006. Late Cenozoic environmental evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as indicated by the evolution of sporopollen assemblages[J]. Geology in China, 33(5): 966-979. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    XIAO L, LI C P, WANG W T, et al. , 2019. Climate evolution since 29 Ma recorded by sediment color on Sikouzi Section, Guyuan, Ningxia[J]. Geological Review, 65(3): 623-631. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    XU Q H, WU N, WANG J, et al. , 2023. Sedimentary characteristics and lake basin evolution of salinized lake basin of Qingshuiying formation in Yinchuan Basin[J]. Earth Science, 48(1): 317-328. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    YIN A, RUMELHART P E, BUTLER R, et al. , 2002. Tectonic history of the Altyn Tagh fault system in northern Tibet inferred from Cenozoic sedimentation[J]. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 114(10): 1257-1295. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(2002)114<1257:THOTAT>2.0.CO;2
    ZHANG J, MA Z J, REN W J, 2005. The sedimentary characteristics of Cenozoic strata in central and southern Ningxia and their relationships with the development of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 79(6): 757-773. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    ZHANG Y Y, 1990. Discovery of some forerunner species of Momipites from Lower Tertiary of China[J]. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 29(3): 300-308. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    ZHAO Y, LIU C Y, ZHANG D D, et al. , 2016. Geochemical characteristics of Paleogene sedimentary rocks in Ningnan Basin and their implications for sedimentary environments[J]. Geological Science and Technology Information, 35(5): 27-33. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    ZHENG W J, ZHANG P Z, YUAN D Y, et al. , 2019. Basic characteristics of active tectonics and associated geodynamic processes in continental China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics, 25(5): 699-721. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    ZHENG W J, ZHANG B X, YUAN D Y, et al. , 2021. Tectonic activity in the southern Alashan Block and the latest boundary of outward expansion on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China[J]. Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment, 43(2): 224-236. (in Chinese with English abstract)
    方小敏, 2017. 青藏高原隆升阶段性[J]. 科技导报, 35(6): 42-50.
    格刺德科娃, 格里丘克, 札克苓斯卡娅, 等, 1956. 花粉分析[M]. 王伏雄, 张金谈, 马毓泉, 等译. 北京: 科学出版社.
    蒋锋云, 季灵运, 赵强, 2021. 海源-六盘山断裂带现今地震危险性的数值模拟分析[J]. 地质力学学报, 27(2): 230-240. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.022
    寇琳琳, 李振宏, 董晓朋, 等, 2021. 青藏高原东北缘隆德观音店剖面碎屑锆石年龄序列及地质意义[J]. 地质力学学报, 27(6): 1051-1064.
    李明涛, 李黎明, 梁志荣, 2020. 宁夏同心地区古近纪-新近纪沉积岩地球化学特征及意义[J]. 矿物岩石地球化学通报, 39(2): 304-318. doi: 10.19658/j.issn.1007-2802.2020.39.018
    苗运法, 方小敏, 宋之琛, 等, 2008. 青藏高原北部始新世孢粉记录与古环境变化[J]. 中国科学 D辑: 地球科学, 38(2): 187-196.
    宁夏回族自治区地质矿产局, 1990. 宁夏回族自治区区域地质志[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
    宁夏回族自治区地质调查院, 2017. 中国区域地质志·宁夏志[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
    潘进礼, 马学东, 马玉学, 等, 2022. 宁夏银川盆地灵武地区古近纪—新近纪沉积岩地球化学特征及对古环境演化的启示[J]. 地质通报, 41(2-3): 296-305. doi: 10.12097/j.issn.1671-2552.2022.2-3.009
    青海石油管理局勘探开发研究院, 中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 1985. 柴达木盆地第三纪孢粉学研究[M]. 北京: 石油工业出版社.
    申旭辉, 田勤俭, 丁国瑜, 等, 2001. 宁夏贺家口子地区晚新生代地层序列及其构造意义[J]. 中国地震, 17(2): 156-166. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-4683.2001.02.006
    宋之琛, 郑亚惠, 李曼英, 等, 1999. 中国孢粉化石(第一卷): 晚白垩世和第三纪孢粉[M]. 北京: 科学出版社.
    孙素英, 1982. 宁夏同心地区渐新世孢粉组合[C]//中国地质科学院地质研究所文集(4). 北京: 地质出版社: 130-141.
    孙秀玉, 赵英娘, 何卓生, 1984. 青海西宁-民和盆地渐新世至中新世孢粉组合[J]. 地质论评, 30(3): 207-216. doi: 10.16509/j.georeview.1984.03.002
    陶明华, 王开发, 郑国光, 等, 2001. 冀中拗陷早第三纪孢粉组合及地质时代讨论[J]. 微体古生物学报, 18(3): 274-292. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-0674.2001.03.008
    王伴月, 阎志强, 陆彦俊, 等, 1994. 宁夏海原两个第三纪中期哺乳动物群的发现[J]. 古脊椎动物学报, 32(4): 285-296. doi: 10.19615/j.cnki.1000-3118.1994.04.013
    王伟涛, 张培震, 张广良, 等, 2010. 青藏高原东北缘寺口子盆地新生代沉积演化及其构造意义[J]. 地质科学, 45(2): 440-452. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0563-5020.2010.02.007
    王伟涛, 2012. 宁夏南部新生代盆地沉积演化及其对青藏高原东北角构造变形的响应[J]. 国际地震动态(10): 40-43.
    王伟涛, 郑德文, 庞建章, 2013. 青藏高原东北缘寺口子剖面碎屑锆石示踪及其构造意义[J]. 地质学报, 87(10): 1551-1569. doi: 10.19762/j.cnki.dizhixuebao.2013.10.006
    王宪曾, 周山富, 徐淑娟, 1979. 江苏北部早第三纪晚期孢粉植物群及其古气候、古地理意义[J]. 植物学报, 21(2): 149-156.
    吴小力, 李荣西, 胡建民, 等, 2017. 中国北方宁南盆地古近纪晚期咸化湖盆演化及其区域地质意义[J]. 地质学报, 91(4): 954-967. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0001-5717.2017.04.018
    吴小力, 李荣西, 李小刚, 等, 2023. 青藏高原东北缘宁南盆地晚古近纪气候变化及其驱动机制[J]. 沉积学报, 41(1): 206-218. doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2021.082
    吴珍汉, 吴中海, 叶培盛, 等, 2006. 青藏高原晚新生代孢粉组合与古环境演化[J]. 中国地质, 33(5): 966-979. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-3657.2006.05.004
    肖霖, 李朝鹏, 王伟涛, 等, 2019. 宁夏固原寺口子剖面色度记录的29 Ma以来气候演化[J]. 地质论评, 65(3): 623-631.
    徐清海, 吴楠, 王健, 等, 2023. 银川盆地清水营组咸化湖盆沉积特征与湖盆演化[J]. 地球科学, 48(1): 317-328.
    张进, 马宗晋, 任文军, 2005. 宁夏中南部新生界沉积特征及其与青藏高原演化的关系[J]. 地质学报, 79(6): 757-773. doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0001-5717.2005.06.005
    张一勇, 1990. Momipites的几个先驱种在我国下第三系的发现: 兼评Carya的北美起源说[J]. 古生物学报, 29(3): 300-308.
    赵岩, 刘池洋, 张东东, 等, 2016. 宁南盆地古近纪沉积岩地球化学特征对沉积环境的反映[J]. 地质科技情报, 35(5): 27-33.
    郑文俊, 张培震, 袁道阳, 等, 2019. 中国大陆活动构造基本特征及其对区域动力过程的控制[J]. 地质力学学报, 25(5): 699-721. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.05.062
    郑文俊, 张博譞, 袁道阳, 等, 2021. 阿拉善地块南缘构造活动特征与青藏高原东北缘向外扩展的最新边界[J]. 地球科学与环境学报, 43(2): 224-236. doi: 10.19814/j.jese.2021.01039
    中国科学院植物研究所形态室孢粉组, 1960. 中国植物花粉形态[M]. 北京: 科学出版社.
  • 加载中


    Figures(5)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (184) PDF downloads(52) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint