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山西运城盆地北部峨嵋台地晚更新世—全新世地质环境变化及其对人类聚落分布的影响

仇度伟 公王斌 闫纪元 赵远方

仇度伟, 公王斌, 闫纪元, 等, 2021. 山西运城盆地北部峨嵋台地晚更新世—全新世地质环境变化及其对人类聚落分布的影响. 地质力学学报, 27 (2): 326-338. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.030
引用本文: 仇度伟, 公王斌, 闫纪元, 等, 2021. 山西运城盆地北部峨嵋台地晚更新世—全新世地质环境变化及其对人类聚落分布的影响. 地质力学学报, 27 (2): 326-338. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.030
QIU Duwei, GONG Wangbin, YAN Jiyuan, et al., 2021. Geological environment changes during the late Pleistocene-Holocene on the E'mei tableland in the northern Yuncheng basin, Shanxi Province: Implications for the distribution of human settlements. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (2): 326-338. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.030
Citation: QIU Duwei, GONG Wangbin, YAN Jiyuan, et al., 2021. Geological environment changes during the late Pleistocene-Holocene on the E'mei tableland in the northern Yuncheng basin, Shanxi Province: Implications for the distribution of human settlements. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (2): 326-338. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.030

山西运城盆地北部峨嵋台地晚更新世—全新世地质环境变化及其对人类聚落分布的影响

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.030
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41972226

国家自然科学基金项目 42072242

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20160060

详细信息
    作者简介:

    仇度伟(1994-), 男, 在读硕士, 主要从事构造地质学研究。E-mail: qiuduwei@126.com

    通讯作者:

    公王斌(1985-), 男, 副研究员, 主要从事构造地质学研究。E-mail: gongwangbin@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P534.63

Geological environment changes during the late Pleistocene-Holocene on the E'mei tableland in the northern Yuncheng basin, Shanxi Province: Implications for the distribution of human settlements

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation 41972226

the National Natural Science Foundation 42072242

the China Geological Survey Project DD20160060

  • 摘要: 新构造运动及自然环境的变化深刻影响着人类聚落的形成与分布。山西运城盆地北部的峨嵋台地中段自北向南发育孤山隆起、埝底洼地、三管高地,现今人类聚落在相对平坦的埝底洼地中较少,而是围绕低洼地带周缘斜坡带分布。野外地质调查发现,研究区广泛分布的马兰黄土之上覆盖着一套冲洪积物、湖相沉积及河流相沉积。文章对不同地貌部位典型剖面开展了详细的野外地质调查及光释光、碳十四年代学研究,结合研究区古人类遗址分布位置及现今人类聚落分布特征,深入分析了晚更新世—全新世峨嵋台地的地质环境变化过程及其对人类聚落迁移的影响。研究结果表明,埝底洼地晚更新世黄土之上湖相沉积底部年龄为距今1.7万年左右,指示该时期峨嵋台地中段形成了低洼地带,并汇水成湖,结合区域构造资料推测该洼地的形成可能与三管高地北侧断裂活动有关。距今约5000年左右的荆村遗址、袁家庄遗址分布位置反映全新世中期湖泊范围可能扩大到了孤山山前,古人类邻水而居。之后随着气候变干,湖泊逐渐萎缩,人类聚落不断向低洼地带迁移。因此,现今人类聚落围绕埝底洼地周缘分布而不进入低洼地带的特征主要延续了全新世中晚期人类聚落邻水而居的形态,这也相应指示了人类聚落分布及演变与自然环境变化之间存在着紧密联系。

     

  • 图  1  峨嵋台地及周边地区DEM影像

    Figure  1.  DEM image of the E'mei tableland and surrounding areas

    图  2  峨嵋台地孤山及周边地区地质特征

    a—峨嵋台地孤山及周边地区地质简图(位置见图 1方框);b—地质地貌剖面图(位置见图 1);c—埝底洼地与三管高地相邻部位地貌特征(遥感影像来自Google Earth)

    Figure  2.  Diagrams showing the geological features of the Gushan in the E'mei tableland and surrounding areas.

    (a) Geological sketch of the Gushan and its surrounding areas in the E'mei tableland (Location is shown in Fig. 1). (b) Geological and geomorphic profile (Location is shown in Fig. 1). (c) Geomorphological characteristics of the adjacent parts between the Niandi low-lying area and Sanguan highland (Remote sensing image is from Google Earth)

    图  3  焦家营剖面晚更新世冲洪积物柱状图

    Figure  3.  Stratigraphic column of pluvial-alluvial sediments in the late Pleistocene section of Jiaojiaying

    图  4  焦家营剖面及邻区地层特征

    L—黄土;S—古土壤
    a—马兰黄土及上覆冲洪积物特征;b—剖面上部冲洪积物特征及采样位置;c—焦家营剖面北西侧冲沟黄土及古土壤特征

    Figure  4.  Photos showing the stratigraphic characteristics of the Jiaojiaying section and the surrounding strata.

    (a) Characteristics of the Malan loess and its overlying alluvial and diluvial sediments. (b) Characteristics and the sampling positions of alluvial and diluvial sediments in the upper section. (c) Characteristics of loess and palaeosol in the northwest side of the Jiaojiaying section.
    L—loess; S—paleosol

    图  5  埝底剖面晚更新世—全新世地层柱状图及野外特征

    Figure  5.  Stratigraphic column of the Niandi section during the late Pleistocene-Holocene and field photos

    图  6  黄家庄剖面晚更新世地层柱状图及野外特征

    a—剖面整体特征及采样位置;b—黄色含蜗牛碎片粗砂特征;c—土黄色粉砂特征

    Figure  6.  Stratigraphic column of the Huangjiazhuang section in the late Pleistocene and field photos.

    (a) Overall characteristics of the profile and sampling position. (b) Characteristics of yellow coarse sand containing snail fragments. (c) Characteristics of khaki silt

    图  7  埝底1井湖相沉积物粒度特征

    a—粒度概率累计曲线;b—粒度频率分布曲线

    Figure  7.  Charts showing the grain-size characteristics of the lacustrine sediments from the Well Niandi 1.

    (a) Granularity probability accumulation curves. (b) Granularity frequency distribution curves

    图  8  晚更新世—全新世地质环境变化与人类聚落分布关系图

    Figure  8.  Graphs showing the relationship between natural environment evolution and human settlements distribution during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene

    图  9  荆村遗址、袁家庄遗址人类活动遗迹

    Figure  9.  Photos of ruins of Jingcun Village and Yuanjiazhuang Village

    表  1  光释光样品特征及测试结果

    Table  1.   Characteristics and test results of the OSL samples

    序号 编号 岩性 埋深 实测含水量/% 环境剂量率/(Gy/Ka) 测试粒径/μm 测试方法 等效剂量/Gy 年龄/ka B.P.
    1 D1013-3 灰色粉砂 3.2 m 4.43 4~11 μm SMAR 105.95±4.73 23.93±2.62
    2 D1013-1 土黄色黄土 7.8 m 4.46 4~11 μm SMAR 179.36±12.11 40.18±4.85
    3 PM03-5 灰白色粉砂 4.8 m 12.77 2.93±0.21 4~11 μm SMAR 28.95±1.46 9.89±0.86
    4 D1077-2 黄色中砂 2.3 m 1.26 3.00±0.24 4~11 μm SMAR 57.83±2.72 19.31±1.82
    5 D1077-1 土黄色粉砂 2.7 m 5.59 2.81±0.21 4~11 μm SMAR 77.48±6.81 27.63±3.17
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  碳十四样品特征及测试结果

    Table  2.   Characteristics and test results of the 14C samples

    序号 编号 岩性 埋深 测试对象 测试方法 年龄/a B.P.
    1 D1013-4 灰色粉砂 1.6 m 有机土 AMS14C 19620±60
    2 PM03-1 棕褐色粘土 0.6 m 有机土 AMS14C 2380±30
    3 PM03-4 棕褐色粘土 2.6 m 有机土 AMS14C 3590±30
    4 N9-1 棕红色粘土 12.0 m 有机土 AMS14C 17520±60
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-30
  • 修回日期:  2021-01-15
  • 刊出日期:  2021-04-28

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