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青藏高原近南北向裂谷的时空分布特征及动力学机制

卞爽 于志泉 龚俊峰 杨蓉 程晓敢 林秀斌 陈汉林

卞爽, 于志泉, 龚俊峰, 等, 2021. 青藏高原近南北向裂谷的时空分布特征及动力学机制. 地质力学学报, 27 (2): 178-194. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.018
引用本文: 卞爽, 于志泉, 龚俊峰, 等, 2021. 青藏高原近南北向裂谷的时空分布特征及动力学机制. 地质力学学报, 27 (2): 178-194. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.018
BIAN Shuang, YU Zhiquan, GONG Junfeng, et al., 2021. Spatiotemporal distribution and geodynamic mechanism of the nearly NS-trending rifts in the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (2): 178-194. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.018
Citation: BIAN Shuang, YU Zhiquan, GONG Junfeng, et al., 2021. Spatiotemporal distribution and geodynamic mechanism of the nearly NS-trending rifts in the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (2): 178-194. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.018

青藏高原近南北向裂谷的时空分布特征及动力学机制

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.018
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41472182

科技部第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目 2019QZKK0708

详细信息
    作者简介:

    卞爽(1993-), 女, 在读博士, 构造地质学专业。E-mail: bianshuang@zju.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    龚俊峰(1981-), 男, 副教授, 从事构造年代学和构造地貌等方面的研究。E-mail: jfgong@zju.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P541

Spatiotemporal distribution and geodynamic mechanism of the nearly NS-trending rifts in the Tibetan Plateau

Funds: 

the National Science Foundation of China 41472182

the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research of China 2019QZKK0708

  • 摘要: 青藏高原南部发育的一系列近南北向裂谷是印度-欧亚大陆持续挤压作用下的大型伸展构造,也是揭示高原后碰撞构造演化过程的重要对象。目前,关于南北向裂谷的形成机制存在多种假说模型,并对裂谷时空分布特征做出了不同的预测,这成为约束裂谷成因机制的关键条件。综合关于裂谷启动时间的已有研究成果,进一步梳理了南北向裂谷的时空分布特征,结果表明近南北向裂谷的启动时间似乎具有自西向东逐步减小的趋势,这与拉萨地体广泛出露的后碰撞岩浆作用演化过程一致。在此基础上,结合地球物理观测,推断近南北向裂谷的动力学机制与印度板片向东拆离假说最为契合。印度板片自西向东的拆离建立了向东传播的重力势能梯度,从而驱动岩石圈向东流动,最终导致南北向裂谷依次向东发育。

     

  • 图  1  青藏高原伸展构造及其与后碰撞岩浆岩关系示意图(据Chung et al., 2005; Tayor and Yin, 2009; Guo et al., 2015修改)

    a—喜马拉雅-青藏高原系统及其周边地区示意图;b—喜马拉雅造山带及藏南地区主要构造图(图中数字为裂谷启动年龄,揭示了自西向东变年轻的趋势,具体描述见正文以及表 1)
    IYS—印度河-雅鲁藏布江缝合带;BNS—班公湖-怒江缝合带;JS—金沙江缝合带;AMS—阿尼玛卿-昆仑-木孜塔格缝合带

    Figure  1.  Sketch map showing the extensional structures and their relationships with the post-collision magmatism in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen (modified after Chung et al., 2005; Tayor and Yin, 2009; Guo et al., 2015). (a) Sketch of the Himalayan-Tibetan system and surrounding areas. (b) Tectonic map of the Himalayan orogen and southern Tibet with major structures. The numbers represent the initiation time of the rifts, revealing the rifting initiated gradually earlier westward. Detailed descriptions can be found in the text and Table 1.IYS—Indus-Yarlung Suture; BNS—Bangonghu-Nujiang Suture; JS—Jinshajiang Suture; AMS—Anyimagen-Kunlun-Moztagh Suture

    图  2  东西向伸展成因模式(据Molnar and Tapponnier, 1978England and Houseman, 1988Yin,2010Styron et al., 2011Yin and Taylor, 2011Chen et al., 2015Webb et al., 2017修改)

    a—重力垮塌模型;b—岩石圈地幔对流移除模型;c—亚洲东缘边界条件改变模型;d—放射状扩展模型;e—马蹄形弯曲模型;f—印度大陆倾斜汇聚模型;g—印度板片双向的横向拆离模型;h—横向挤出模型;i—岩石圈向东流动模型;j—板片撕裂模型

    Figure  2.  Theoretical models for the mechanism of the E-W extension (modified after Molnar and Tapponnier, 1978; England and Houseman, 1988; Yin, 2010; Styron et al., 2011; Yin and Taylor, 2011; Chen et al., 2015; Webb et al., 2017). (a) Gravitational collapse; (b) Convective thinning; (c) Change in the boundary condition; (d) Radial spreading; (e) Oroclinal bending; (f) Oblique convergence; (g) Lateral slab detachment; (h) Lateral extrusion; (i) Eastward lithospheric flow; (j) Slab tearing

    图  3  青藏高原东西向伸展的地球动力学过程示意图

    MCT—主逆冲断层;STD—藏南拆离系;IYS—印度河-雅鲁藏布江缝合带;BNS—班公湖-怒江缝合带

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram showing the geodynamic process of the E-W extension in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen MCT—Main Central Thrust; STD—Southern Tibet Detachment; IYS—Indus-Yarlung Suture; BNS—Bangong-Nujiang Suture

    表  1  青藏高原南北向裂谷启动时间

    Table  1.   Initiation time of the NS-trending rifts in the Tibetan Plateau

    图 1b中的编号 裂谷名称 启动时间/Ma 方法 流变学特征 参考文献
    (A) 双湖 >13.5 Rb-Sr和40Ar/39Ar 脆性 Blisniuk et al., 2001
    < 4 伸展速率和伸展量估算 脆性 Yin et al., 1999
    (B) 北隆格尔 ~15 锆石U-Pb 韧性 Kapp et al., 2008
    15~10 磷灰石、锆石(U-Th)/He 脆性-韧性 Sundell et al., 2013
    10~8 磷灰石、锆石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Woodruff et al., 2013
    (C) 南隆格尔 16~12 锆石(U-Th)/He 韧性 Styron et al., 2013
    (D) Lopukangri 15~14 云母40Ar/39Ar - Sanchez et al., 2010
    17~15 锆石U-Pb 韧性 Laskowski et al., 2017
    (E) 当惹雍错 13 磷灰石、锆石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Dewane et al., 2006
    14.5 锆石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Wolff et al., 2018
    (F) 申扎 14 锆石U-Pb;磷灰石、锆石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Hager et al., 2009
    (G) 谷露 7~5 磷灰石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Stockli et al., 2002
    (H) 念青唐古拉 8 云母、钾长石40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Harrison et al., 1995
    8 钾长石40Ar/39Ar 脆性 Kapp et al., 2005
    8~6.8 磷灰石裂变径迹 脆性 吴珍汉等,2002
    (I) Leo Pargil 23 独居石U-Pb 韧性 Langille et al., 2012
    16~14 白云母40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Thiede et al., 2006
    16 白云母40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Hintersberger et al., 2010
    (J) Gurla Mandhata ~15 独居石Th-Pb 韧性 Murphy and Copeland, 2005
    14~11 锆石(U-Th)/He 韧性 McCallister et al., 2014
    9 云母40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Murphy et al., 2002
    ~9 磁性地层 - Saylor et al., 2009, 2010
    (K) Thakkhola >14 白云母40Ar/39Ar 伸展岩脉 Coleman and Hodges, 1995
    11~10 磁性地层 - Garzione et al., 2000, 2003
    ~17 白云母40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Larson et al., 2020
    (L) 孔错 13-12 磷灰石、锆石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Lee et al., 2011
    < 4 磷灰石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Mahéo et al., 2007
    (M) 定结 13~10 云母40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Zhang and Guo, 2007
    12~10 黑云母40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Kali et al., 2010
    (N) 亚东 < 10 独居石Th-Pb 韧性 Edwards and Harrison, 1997
    < 11.5 独居石U-Pb 韧性 Ratschbacher et al., 2011
    13~11 云母40Ar/39Ar 韧性 Xu et al., 2013
    7 磷灰石裂变径迹、磷灰石、锆石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Dong et al., 2020
    (O) 错那 ~3 黑云母、钾长石40Ar/39Ar和锆石、磷灰石(U-Th)/He 脆性 Bian et al., 2020
    ~5 电子自旋共振 脆性 吴中海等,2008
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-10
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