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地质力学学报:2021,27(4):596-613
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花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床流体成矿机制研究进展
(内生金属矿床成矿机制研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学地球科学与工程学院, 江苏 南京 210023)
Research progress on the fluid metallogenic mechanism of granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposits
(State key Laboratory for Mineral Deposits Research, Institute of Geo-fluids, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China)
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投稿时间:2021-04-30    修订日期:2021-06-25
中文摘要: 随着战略性新兴产业的快速发展,稀有金属等关键金属资源的地位日益不可或缺。花岗伟晶岩是最重要的稀有金属矿床成因类型,该类型矿床的成矿流体特征和成因机制是矿床学的热门研究话题。文章主要对花岗伟晶岩型矿床的成矿流体特征和成矿机制进行了探讨。花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿流体普遍富集挥发分(B、P、F和H2O)和成矿元素,具有低黏度、低成核率、强元素溶解能力和强迁移性。花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿流体形成温压条件存在争议,部分研究者认为形成于高温高压条件,也有研究者认为可能形成于过冷却条件下,温度可能低至350℃。花岗质岩浆高度结晶分异演化和富成矿元素地壳物质小比例深熔是形成成矿花岗伟晶岩的两种主要机制。流体不混溶和组成带纯化是岩浆热液演化过程中稀有金属进一步富集的重要手段。中国规模最大的甲基卡花岗伟晶岩型锂矿是研究该类矿床的理想实验室。
Abstract:Strategic rare metals have irreplaceable important use to emerging industry development. Granitic pegmatite is the main source of rare metals, and their fluid characteristics and metallogenic mechanism are hot topics. This paper mainly focuses on fluid properties and metallogenic mechanism of granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposits. Ore-forming fluids of the granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposits are generally enriched in volatile (B, P, F and H2O) and ore-forming elements, with low viscosity, low nucleation rate, but strong element solubility and mobility. The ore-forming fluids of the granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposit were argued to be captured under the condition of high temperature and high pressure, or the temperature of as low as 350℃ under the condition of supercooling. The high crystallization differentiation evolution of granitic magma and the small proportion of crustal material rich in ore-forming elements are the two main mechanisms for the formation of ore-forming granitic pegmatite. Fluid immiscibility and constitutional zone refining are important means for further enrichment of rare metals in the process of magmatic hydrothermal evolution. The largest Jiajika granitic pegmatite-type lithium deposit in China is an ideal laboratory to study this kind of deposit.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P59;P611    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0702704)
引用文本:
郑范博,王国光,倪培,2021.花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床流体成矿机制研究进展[J].地质力学学报,27(4):596-613.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.050
ZHENG Fanbo,WANG Guoguang,NI Pei,2021.Research progress on the fluid metallogenic mechanism of granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposits[J].Journal of Geomechanics,27(4):596-613.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.050

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