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地质力学学报:2021,27(2):326-338
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山西运城盆地北部峨嵋台地晚更新世—全新世地质环境变化及其对人类聚落分布的影响
(1.中国地质科学院地质力学研究所, 北京 100081;2.自然资源部古地磁与古构造重建重点实验室, 北京 100081)
Geological environment changes during the late Pleistocene-Holocene on the E'mei tableland in the northern Yuncheng basin, Shanxi Province: Implications for the distribution of human settlements
(1.Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;2.Key Laboratory of Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Reconstruction of Natural Resources, Beijing 100081, China)
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投稿时间:2020-11-30    修订日期:2021-01-15
中文摘要: 新构造运动及自然环境的变化深刻影响着人类聚落的形成与分布。山西运城盆地北部的峨嵋台地中段自北向南发育孤山隆起、埝底洼地、三管高地,现今人类聚落在相对平坦的埝底洼地中较少,而是围绕低洼地带周缘斜坡带分布。野外地质调查发现,研究区广泛分布的马兰黄土之上覆盖着一套冲洪积物、湖相沉积及河流相沉积。文章对不同地貌部位典型剖面开展了详细的野外地质调查及光释光、碳十四年代学研究,结合研究区古人类遗址分布位置及现今人类聚落分布特征,深入分析了晚更新世—全新世峨嵋台地的地质环境变化过程及其对人类聚落迁移的影响。研究结果表明,埝底洼地晚更新世黄土之上湖相沉积底部年龄为距今1.7万年左右,指示该时期峨嵋台地中段形成了低洼地带,并汇水成湖,结合区域构造资料推测该洼地的形成可能与三管高地北侧断裂活动有关。距今约5000年左右的荆村遗址、袁家庄遗址分布位置反映全新世中期湖泊范围可能扩大到了孤山山前,古人类邻水而居。之后随着气候变干,湖泊逐渐萎缩,人类聚落不断向低洼地带迁移。因此,现今人类聚落围绕埝底洼地周缘分布而不进入低洼地带的特征主要延续了全新世中晚期人类聚落邻水而居的形态,这也相应指示了人类聚落分布及演变与自然环境变化之间存在着紧密联系。
Abstract:Neotectonic movements and the changing natural environment have profoundly influenced human settlements on their formation and distribution. The Gushan uplift, Niandi low-lying area and Sanguan highland developed from north to south in the central section of the E’mei tableland; however, human settlements nowadays distribute on the peripheral slopes around the low-lying area rather than right in the Niandi low-lying area. Our field investigation reveals that the Malan loess is overlied by a set of alluvial-diluvial deposits, lacustrine deposits, and fluvial deposits. This paper mainly presents field evidence and chronological analyses of OSL and 14C for the typical sections of different geomorphic sites to discuss the geological environment evolution of the E’mei tableland during the late Pleistocene-Holocene and its influence on the migration of human settlements. Our field investigation and analysis results show that the formation age of the bottom of the late Pleistocene lacustrine deposits above the loess in the Niandi low-lying area is about 17 ka B.P., indicating a depression had developed in the middle section of the E’mei tableland during this period with water converging in, forming a lake afterwards. Combined with the regional structural data, it is speculated that the formation of this depression was caused by the fault activity on the north side of the Sanguan highland. The location of 5000-year-old ruins of Jingcun Village and Yuanjiazhuang Village shows that the lake may have expanded to the piedmont of Gushan in the middle Holocene. Along with increasing dryness of climate and the shrinkage of lake, human settlements kept migrating to the low-lying lands. Nowadays, villages around the periphery of the Niandi low-lying area carries on the distribution pattern of living by water in the middle-late Holocene, which indicates that the distribution and evolution of human settlements are closely connected with the changes of natural environment.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P534.63    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41972226,42072242);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20160060)
引用文本:
仇度伟,公王斌,闫纪元,等,2021.山西运城盆地北部峨嵋台地晚更新世—全新世地质环境变化及其对人类聚落分布的影响[J].地质力学学报,27(2):326-338.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.030
QIU Duwei,GONG Wangbin,YAN Jiyuan,et al,2021.Geological environment changes during the late Pleistocene-Holocene on the E'mei tableland in the northern Yuncheng basin, Shanxi Province: Implications for the distribution of human settlements[J].Journal of Geomechanics,27(2):326-338.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.030

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