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地质力学学报:2021,27(2):254-266
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基于历史航卫片的城市“隐形”活动断层精确定位——以大同盆地水峪断裂为例
(1.应急管理部国家自然灾害防治研究院, 北京 100085;2.中国地震局地壳动力学重点实验室, 北京 100085;3.四川西昌青藏高原走滑断裂系灾害动力学野外科学观测研究站, 四川 西昌 615000)
Using historical aerial images to accurately locate the urban “invisible” active faults: A case study of the Shuiyu fault of the Datong Basin in Shanxi province
(1.National Institute of Natural Hazards, Ministry of Emergency Management of China, Beijing 100085, China;2.Key Laboratory of Crustal Dynamics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100085, China;3.Xichang Observatory for Natural Disaster Dynamics of Strike-slip Fault System in the Tibetan Plateau, Xichang 615000, Sichuan, China)
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投稿时间:2020-11-27    修订日期:2021-02-11
中文摘要: 活动断层是城市地震灾害的重要风险源,准确厘定活动断层的空间几何展布是有效降低城市地震灾害和开展活动断层避让的基础。而城市化建设对原始地貌的严重改造使得原先出露地表的活动断层成为"隐形"断层,难以准确确定断层的几何展布。大同盆地中部的水峪断裂北段位于马铺山东缘,断错地貌明显,但南段进入大同市御东新区被城市建筑物覆盖,成为"隐形"断层。研究基于大同地区1965年历史航片影像资料,结合1∶10000地形图,运用航片像对和航空立体摄影的方法重建了该地区的数字高程模型(DEM)和正射影像(DOM),重点对水峪断裂"隐形"段进行识别和定位,厘定了水峪断裂断层陡坎的几何展布特征。研究结果表明,水峪断裂北段山前陡坎线性特征明显,由影像可以准确解译出断层几何展布位置;水峪断裂南段可基于2000年之前的Keyhole历史遥感影像、DOM与DEM资料,根据断层两侧的颜色差异及陡坎高度差异,精确厘定该段的断层几何展布位置;DEM提取的地形剖面表明"隐形"段陡坎高度在19 m左右。同时,基于野外调查的断层剖面与浅层人工地震剖面证明该陡坎就是水峪断裂的位置,这也表明利用历史航卫片对城市"隐形"活动断层进行精确定位的方法是可行的。该研究不仅为大同地区的地震危险性评估提供了重要依据,而且为城市"隐形"活动断层探测提供了一个新的思路和途径。
Abstract:Active fault is a major risk source of urban earthquake disaster. Accurately identifying the spatial geometry distribution features of active fault is the basis for urban seismic risk migration. However, due to the large-scale and deep urban renewal by human activities and urbanization, the traces of active faults are obscure and invisible on the surface, which makes it hard to identify the surface geometry of this kind of active faults. Though the northern Shuiyu fault in the central part of the Datong Basin is bounded by the eastern edge of the Mapu Mountain and characterized by linear displaced landforms, the southern section of the Shuiyu fault crossing the Yudong District of Datong City is covered by dense buildings and roads, becoming an "invisible" fault. In this study, based on the 1965 historical aerial photos of the Datong region in the 1960’s and the 1∶10000 topographic maps, we reconstructed the original DEM and DOM of this region using the aerial photo stereopair and stereoscopic photography. These original data revealed the geometry distribution characteristics of the Shuiyu fault. Our results show that the piedmont fault scarps are marked by prominent linear features along the northern Shuiyu fault. We can accurately locate the fault by the images. Based on the previous Keyhole satellite images, DOM and DEM data, the geometric distribution of the fault in the southern Shuiyu fault can be accurately determined. Topographic profiles extracted from the original DEM show that the vertical offset on terrace T3 along the Shuiyu fault is about 19 meters. On this basis, the fault natural exposures and shallow seismic reflection data demonstrate that it is feasible to accurately locate the "invisible" active fault in the city by using historical aerial photos and stereoscopic photography. This study provides not only an important basis for the seismic hazard assessment in the Datong region but a useful technique for the detection of "invisible" active faults beneath a city.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P627;P54    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41572193,41941016,U1839204);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-422);应急管理部国家自然灾害防治研究院基本科研业务专项(ZDJ2017-24);大同市政府横向科研项目(SXDT2019018)
引用文本:
郭菲,任俊杰,郭慧,等,2021.基于历史航卫片的城市“隐形”活动断层精确定位——以大同盆地水峪断裂为例[J].地质力学学报,27(2):254-266.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.024
GUO Fei,REN Junjie,GUO Hui,et al,2021.Using historical aerial images to accurately locate the urban “invisible” active faults: A case study of the Shuiyu fault of the Datong Basin in Shanxi province[J].Journal of Geomechanics,27(2):254-266.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.02.024

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