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地质力学学报:2020,26(5):714-730
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黄土高原滑坡灾害形成动力学机制
(1.长安大学地质工程与测绘学院, 陕西 西安 710054;2.长安大学建筑工程学院, 陕西 西安 710061;3.长江科学院水土保持研究所, 湖北 武汉 430010)
Dynamic formation mechanism of landslide disaster on the Loess Plateau
(1.School of Geological Engineering and Geomatics, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, Shannxi, China;2.School of Civil Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710061, Shannxi, China;3.Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan 430010, Hubei, China)
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投稿时间:2020-08-11    修订日期:2020-09-14
中文摘要: 滑坡灾害是威胁黄土高原人民生命和财产安全、城镇与重大工程建设与运营的重大地质问题。针对黄土高原滑坡灾害形成的动力学机制问题,在大量的调查统计、试验与理论分析基础上,总结得出区域构造应力是黄土高原滑坡高发的主要驱动力,它是滑坡分区分带群发的控制因素,是黄土滑坡的"第一元凶";边坡构造应力既造就了结构面,又不断地改造和松动着结构面,持续地肢解着边坡的完整性,它是单体滑坡形成的主要驱动力,是黄土滑坡的"第二元凶";黄土是一种特殊的结构土,具有极强的水敏性,在土体应力驱动下极易灾变,黄土的这种易灾特性是土体灾变的内在原因,是黄土滑坡的"第三元凶";大量的滑坡发生都与水有关,地表水大量渗入黄土浅表部,会引起浅表崩塌和溜滑灾害,而当水沿着微、细、宏观优势通道进入黄土深部后,就可能引起深层滑坡,因此,动水渗透作用是黄土滑坡的"主凶";工程扰动既会改变边坡原有的应力状态,进而扩展和松动已有的结构面,现今,工程扰动已经成为一种诱发地质灾害的重要地质营力,是黄土滑坡的"帮凶"。
Abstract:Landslide disaster is a major geological problem that threatens the safety of people's life and property, and the construction and operation of towns and major projects on the Loess Plateau. Aiming at the dynamic formation mechanism of landslide on the Loess Plateau, based on a large number of investigation, statistics, tests and theoretical analysis, following conclusions were drawn: The regional tectonic stress is the main driving force for high occurrence of landslides. It is the controlling factor for landslides ocurring in different zones and belts and the first internal cause. The tectonic stress of the slope not only creates the structural surface, but also continuously alters and loosens the structural surface and dismembers the integrity of the slope. It is the main driving force for the formation of single landslide and the second internal cause of loess landslide. Loess is a kind of special structural soil with strong water sensitivity, which is prone to disasters under soil stress drive. This disaster-prone property of loess is the internal cause of soil disaster and the third internal cause of loess landslide. A large number of landslides are related to water. Surface water penetrates into the shallow surface of loess in large quantities, which will cause shallow surface collapse and sliding disasters. When water enters the deep loess along the micro, fine and macroscopic dominant channels, it may cause deep-seated landslides. Thus, the seepage of dynamic water is the major external cause of loess landslide. Construction disturbance will not only change the original stress state of slope, but also expand and loosen the existing structural plane. Nowadays, construction disturbance has become an important geological agent to induce geological disasters and is the secondary external cause of loess landslide.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金重大项目(41790441)
引用文本:
彭建兵,王启耀,庄建琦,等,2020.黄土高原滑坡灾害形成动力学机制[J].地质力学学报,26(5):714-730.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.059
PENG Jianbing,WANG Qiyao,ZHUANG Jianqi,et al,2020.Dynamic formation mechanism of landslide disaster on the Loess Plateau[J].Journal of Geomechanics,26(5):714-730.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.059

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