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地质力学学报:2020,26(5):673-695
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中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏形成分布的基本特征与动力机制及发展方向
(1.中国石油大学(北京)油气资源与探测国家重点实验室, 北京 102249;2.中国石油大学(北京)地球科学学院, 北京 102249;3.中国石化石油勘探开发研究院, 北京 100083)
Basic characteristics, dynamic mechanism and development direction of the formation and distribution of deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China
(1.State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China;2.College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China;3.Sinopec Petroleum Exploration and Development Research Institute, Beijing 100083, China)
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投稿时间:2020-07-30    修订日期:2020-08-31
中文摘要: 随着油气资源对外依赖度加大,中国的油气勘探已经拓展到深层和超深层领域,并相继在中西部盆地发现了塔河、普光、安岳、靖边、顺北等一批大型油气田,展示出广阔的勘探前景。中国已探明的深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏特征与全球的有很大差异,经典的油气地质理论指导这类油气田勘探遇到了前所未有的重大挑战,需要完善和发展。通过调研和比较全球已探明的碳酸盐岩和砂岩油气藏地质特征,发现它们的油气来源条件、油气藏形成条件、成藏动力、演化过程特征等类同;同时,发现碳酸盐岩和砂岩油气藏的矿物组成、孔隙度和渗透率随埋深变化特征、孔渗结构特征、储层物性下限、油气藏类型等有着很大不同。中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏与全球的相比较具有五方面差异:地层年代更老、埋藏深度更大、白云岩储层比率更大、天然气资源比率更高、储层孔渗关系更乱。中国已经发现的深层碳酸盐岩油气藏成因类型可以归为五种:沉积型高孔高渗油气藏、压实成岩型低孔低渗油气藏、结晶成岩型低孔低渗油气藏、流体改造型高孔低渗油气藏、应力改造型低孔高渗油气藏;它们形成的动力学机制分别与地层沉积和浮力主导的油气运移作用、地层压实和非浮力主导的油气运移作用、成岩结晶和非浮力主导的油气运移作用、流体改造介质和浮力主导的油气运移作用、应力改造和浮力主导的油气运移作用等密切相关。中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏勘探发展的有利领域和油气藏类型主要有三个:一是低热流盆地浮力成藏下限之上自由动力场形成的高孔高渗常规油气藏;二是构造变动频繁的叠合盆地内外应力和内部流体活动改造而形成的缝洞复合型油气藏;三是构造稳定盆地内局限动力场形成的广泛致密连续型非常规油气藏。改造类非常规致密碳酸盐岩油气藏是中国含油气盆地深层和超深层油气资源的主要类型:它们叠加了早期形成的常规油气藏特征,又具有自身广泛连续分布的非常规特征,还经受了后期构造变动的改造;复杂的分布特征,致密的介质条件和高温高压环境使得这类油气资源勘探开发难度大、成本高。
Abstract:With the increasing dependence on external oil and gas resources, China's oil and gas exploration has expanded to deep and ultra-deep areas and discovered a number of large oil and gas fields in the central and western basins successively, such as the Tahe, Puguang, Anyue, Jingbian and Shunbei oilfields, showing a broad prospect of exploration. The proven deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China are quite different from those in the world, and the exploration of these oil and gas fields under the guidance of the classical oil and gas geological theories has met unprecedented challenges, which need to be improved and developed. Through the investigation and comparison of the geological characteristics of the proven carbonate and sandstone reservoirs around the world, it is found that their oil and gas source conditions, accumulation dynamics, and evolution processes are similar;however, it is revealed at the same time that the mineral composition of reservoir layers, their porosity and permeability change characteristics with buried depth, porosity and permeability structure characteristics, the lower limit of reservoir physical properties, and oil and gas reservoir types are very different. There are five differences between the deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China and other basins in the world, which in China have older formations, greater burial depth, greater dolomite reservoir ratio, higher natural gas resource ratio, and more chaotic relationship between porosity and permeability. The genetic types of deep carbonate reservoirs discovered in China can be classified into five types: sedimentary high-porosity and high-permeability oil/gas reservoirs, compacted diagenetic low-porosity and low-permeability oil/gas reservoirs, crystalline diagenetic low-porosity and low-permeability oil/gas reservoirs, fluid modified high-porosity and low-permeability oil/gas reservoirs, and stress reformed low-porosity and high-permeability oil/gas reservoirs. The dynamic mechanisms of their formation are respectively related to the oil and gas migration dominated by stratigraphic deposition and buoyancy, formation compaction and non-buoyancy, diagenetic crystallization and non-buoyancy, fluid reformed media and buoyancy, stress reformed media and buoyancy. There are mainly three favorable areas and related types of oil and gas reservoirs for the exploration and development of China's deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs. The first is the conventional oil and gas reservoirs with high-porosity and high-permeability, formed in the free oil/gas dynamic field above the hydrocarbon buoyance-driven depth limit in basins with low heat flow. The second is the fracture-cavity compound oil/gas reservoirs, formed by external stress and inner fluids activities in the superimposed basin due to frequent structural changes. The third one is the extensive compacted continuous unconventional tight oil/gas reservoirs, formed by the confined dynamic field in the structurally stable basin. The reformed unconventional tight carbonate oil and gas reservoirs are the main types of future oil and gas resources in the deep and ultra-deep layers of China's petroliferous basins. They both have the characteristics of conventional reservoirs formed in the early stage and their own unconventional characteristics of extensive and continuous distribution, and have undergone structural changes in the later stage. The complex distribution characteristics, dense medium conditions and high temperature and pressure environment make the exploration and development of this kind of oil and gas resources difficult and costly.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金联合基金项目(U19B6003)
Author NameAffiliation
PANG Xiongqi State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China 
LIN Huixi Sinopec Petroleum Exploration and Development Research Institute, Beijing 100083, China 
ZHENG Dingye State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China 
LI Huili Sinopec Petroleum Exploration and Development Research Institute, Beijing 100083, China 
ZOU Huayao State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China 
PANG Hong State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China 
HU Tao State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China 
GUO Fangxin State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China 
LI Hongyu State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
College of Geoscience, China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China 
引用文本:
庞雄奇,林会喜,郑定业,等,2020.中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏形成分布的基本特征与动力机制及发展方向[J].地质力学学报,26(5):673-695.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.057
PANG Xiongqi,LIN Huixi,ZHENG Dingye,et al,2020.Basic characteristics, dynamic mechanism and development direction of the formation and distribution of deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China[J].Journal of Geomechanics,26(5):673-695.DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.057

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