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中国地质矿产调查事业发展历程

李廷栋

李廷栋,2022. 中国地质矿产调查事业发展历程[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):653−682 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222818
引用本文: 李廷栋,2022. 中国地质矿产调查事业发展历程[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):653−682 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222818
LI T D,2022. Development history of geological and mineral survey in China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):653−682 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222818
Citation: LI T D,2022. Development history of geological and mineral survey in China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):653−682 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222818

中国地质矿产调查事业发展历程

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222818
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李廷栋(1930—),男,研究员,中国科学院院士,长期从事区域地质研究和地质编图。E-mail: litdong@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P5

Development history of geological and mineral survey in China

  • 摘要: 中国是一个有五千多年历史的文明古国和古人类的栖居地。在浩如烟海的古籍和民间传说中,都有丰富的有关地质现象和地质作用的描述。社会生产力和生产关系的变革带来的科学技术进步和生产方式的突破使地质事业的发展呈现出阶段性。包括远古时代人类对地质现象的探索在内,文章把中国地质矿产调查事业的发展史划分为6个阶段,即石器时代的地质遗迹、远古时代的地质认知、启蒙时代的地质考察、奠基时代的地质调查研究、快速发展时期的地质工作和改革开放新时代的地质事业,分别论述了各个发展阶段地质矿产调查工作中的重要地质事件、地质工作的内容和特点、主要调查研究成果和对国家经济社会发展作出的贡献。

     

  • 图  1  旧石器时代人类使用的石器(黄宗理和张良弼,2006

    Figure  1.  Stone tools used by human beings in the Paleolithic Age (Huang and Zhang, 2006)

    图  2  良渚文化嵌玉漆杯(朱叶菲,2019

    Figure  2.  The Inlaid Jade Lacquer Cup of Liangzhu Culture, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (Zhu, 2019)

    图  3  李约瑟(1900年12月9日—1995年3月25日)

    Figure  3.  Joseph Needham (1900.12.9–1995.3.25)

    图  4  《本草纲目》及《管子》封面

    Figure  4.  The covers of Compendium of Materia Medica and Guanzi

    图  5  张衡地动仪及《徐霞客游记》封面

    Figure  5.  Zhang Heng's seismometer and the cover of Xu Xiake's Travels

    图  6  李希霍芬(1833—1905)头像及其《中国》一书封面

    Figure  6.  The profile portrait of F. V. Richthofen (1833–1905) and the cover of his book China

    图  7  中国现代地质学的奠基人

    自左至右:章鸿钊(1877—1951)、丁文江(1887—1936)、翁文灏(1889—1971)、李四光(1889—1971)

    Figure  7.  Founders of modern Chinese geology

    From left to right: Zhang Hongzhao (1877–1951), Ding Wenjiang (1887–1936), Weng Wenhao (1889–1971), J. S. Lee (1889–1971)

    图  8  北京兵马司九号中国地质调查所旧址

    Figure  8.  The former site of the Institute of China Geological Survey, No. 9, Bingmashi hutong, Beijing

    图  9  中国地质学会会徽及期刊封面

    Figure  9.  The emblem of the Geological Society of China and the cover of its journals

    图  10  李四光The Geology of China与黄汲清《中国主要地质构造单位》封面

    Figure  10.  The covers of The Geology of China by J. S. Lee and On Major Tectonic Forms of China by Huang Jiqing

    图  11  中国地质工作计划指导委员会扩大会议代表和来宾合影(1950年11月1日)

    Figure  11.  Group photo of delegates and guests at the enlarged meeting of the Program Steering Committee of China's Geological Work (1950.11.1)

    图  12  两轮中国区域地质志

    a—第一轮中国区域地质志《中国区域地质概论》封面(程裕淇,1994);b—第二轮已出版的12个省级中国区域地质志(李廷栋等,2022b

    Figure  12.  The generation of the Regional Geology of China

    (a) The first generation of An Introduction to the Regional Geology of China (Cheng, 1994) , (b) The second generation of the Regional Geology of China (12 published provincial regional geology; Li et al., 2022b)

    图  13  南极长城站及中山站俯瞰图(来自中国极地研究中心网站 https://www.pric.org.cn/

    Figure  13.  Aerial view of the Great Wall Station and the Zhongshan Station in Antarctica (From the website of the Polar Research Institute of China https://www.pric.org.cn/)

    图  14  山东威海市临港区永川采石场修复效果图(王文钰,2021

    Figure  14.  Restoration effect picture of the Yongchuan quarry in Lingang District, Weihai City, Shandong Province (Wang, 2021)

    图  15  中国地震及北方土地沙漠化分布图(杜秀荣和唐建军,2017

    Figure  15.  Distribution Map of the earthquakes in China and the desertification in Northern China (Du and Tang, 2017)

    图  16  中国中元古代地层新划分方案建议(李廷栋等,2022b

    Figure  16.  Suggestion on the new division scheme of the Mesoproterozoic strata in China (Ling et al., 2022b)

    图  17  中国侵入岩图(李廷栋等,2022b

    Figure  17.  Map of intrusive rocks in China (Li et al., 2022b)

    表  1  1978年全国主要矿产累计探明储量(赵腊平,2019a

    Table  1.   Cumulate proved reserves of major minerals in China in 1978 (Zhao, 2019a

    矿种名称单位储量矿种名称单位储量
    石油 108 t 68.14 锌矿 金属,104 t 5162.4
    天然气 108 m3 2300 钨矿 WO3,104 t 391.4
    煤矿 108 t 7464.8 锡矿 金属,104 t 362.4
    铀矿 104 t 钼矿 金属,104 t 417.8
    铁矿 108 t 413.4 锑矿 金属,104 t 15.7
    锰矿 108 t 2.674 稀土 氧化物,104 t 保有1597.5
    铬铁矿 104 t 909.1 金矿 金属, t 948.7
    铜矿 金属,104 t 5414.4 磷矿 108 t 89.31
    铝土矿 108 t 10.1 硫铁矿 108 t 27.94
    铅矿 金属,104 t 3244.3 钾盐 氯化钾,108 t 保有1.44
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中国区域地质调查完成情况(截至2015年;中国地质调查百年史纲编写组,2016

    Table  2.   Completion of the Regional Geological Survey of China (as of 2015; Editorial committee of Compiling Group of Centennial Outline of Chinese Geological Survey, 2016)

    类别种类面积/104 km2占全国陆地面积比例/%
    区域地质(矿产)调查 1∶5万区域地质调查 347.86 36.6
    1∶5万区域地质矿产调查 293.32 30.9
    中比例尺区域地质调查(1∶20万及1∶25万) 862.80 90.9
    区域地球物理调查 1∶5万区域重力调查 23.12 2.4
    中比例尺区域重力调查(1∶20万及1∶25万) 656.42 69.1
    航空物探测量 1∶5万航空磁测 479.02 50.5
    1∶5万及大比例尺航空磁测 484.12 51.0
    1∶10万航空磁测 364.26 38.4
    1∶20万航空磁测 377.39 39.8
    区域地球化学调查 1∶5万区域地球化学调查 246.38 26.0
    中比例尺区域地球化学调查(1∶20万及1∶25万) 716.44 75.5
    1∶5万土壤质量地球化学调查 13.81 1.5
    1∶25万土壤质量地球化学调查 195.28 20.6
    水文地质、环境地质调查 1∶5万水文地质调查 72.43 7.6
    1∶5万水文地质调查 238.93 25.2
    中比例尺区域水文地质调查(1∶20万及1∶25万) 710.02 74.8
    1∶25万地下水污染调查 369.87 39.0
    1∶5万环境地质调查 39.65 4.2
    1∶25万环境地质调查 172.54 18.2
    1∶5万地质灾害调查 107.06 11.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  中国正式建立的“金钉子”剖面(中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 2013赵元龙等,2021

    Table  3.   Global standard strato type-sections in China (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2013; Zhao et al., 2021

    序号名称地理位置年代地层界线批准时间
    1 黄泥塘剖面 浙江常山 奥陶系达瑞威尔阶底界 1997 年
    2 煤山D剖面 浙江长兴 印度阶底界(二叠系—三叠系界线) 2001 年
    3 排碧剖面 湖南花垣 寒武系排碧阶(芙蓉统)底界界线 2003 年
    4 蓬莱滩剖面 广西来宾 二叠系吴家坪阶(乐平统)界线 2004 年
    5 煤山D剖面 浙江长兴 二叠系长兴阶底界 2005 年
    6 王家湾剖面 湖北宜昌 奥陶系赫南特阶界线 2006 年
    7 罗依溪剖面 湖南古丈 寒武系古丈阶界线 2008 年
    8 黄花场剖面 湖北宜昌 奥陶系大坪阶底界 2008 年
    9 碰冲剖面 广西柳州 石炭系维宪阶界线 2008 年
    10 碓边村剖面 浙江江山 寒武系江山阶底界 2011 年
    11 乌溜–曾家岩剖面 贵州剑河 寒武系乌溜阶(苗岭统)底界 2018 年
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-09-30
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-12
  • 预出版日期:  2022-11-02

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