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地质力学学报:2018,24(4):555-586
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断层力学科学范畴、发展脉络评论及未来发展思考
关成尧1, 赵国春2, 白相东1, 袁四化1, 张艳1, 刘晓燕1
(1.防灾科技学院地震科学系, 河北 三河 605201;2.中国地质大学(北京)地球科学与资源学院, 北京 100083)
REVIEW OF CATEGORY AND DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT OF FAULT MECHANICS
GUAN Chengyao1, ZHAO Guochun2, BAI Xiangdong1, YUAN Sihua1, ZHANG Yan1, LIU Xiaoyan1
(1.Institute of Disaster Prevention Science and Technology, Sanhe 065201, Hebei, China;2.School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China)
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投稿时间:2018-01-08    修订日期:2018-06-29
中文摘要: 为了看清断层力学的理论全貌,文章研究了断层力学的发展脉络、应有体系、框架性缺失,总结了学术各界关注点及研究内容差异。结果表明断层力学关联领域存在尺度差异和目标差异,断层力学是多学科纽带,却是"三不管"地带。岩石裂纹和含内部构造的断层之间存在尺度差异和变形速度差异。断层力学的百年发展经历了从外力研究断层-构造应力场-滑移线场研究断层三个阶段,这三个阶段总的发展方向就是逐渐简化、实用化,阻碍了定量理论的发展。"Mohr范式"是支撑,带有实用化、简单化特点,也阻碍了断层力学向机理化和定量化方向发展。断层研究存在正演和反演两类方法,正演主要包括实验断层力学和理论断层力学两类途径,正演和反演结合是未来发展方向。"地质力学"秉承"力学统一律",体现断层空间联系和力学联系,属于"广义断层力学"范畴。"广义断层力学"体系适用"统一发展,关注联系"发展途径,"狭义断层力学"体系适用"分散发展,各自攻克"发展途径。先存断层或薄弱带控制后生断层,并影响应力展布,"应力制约论"是重要方向。未来将产生"流变摩擦学"和"断层岩组构摩擦学"两个方向,"断层岩组构摩擦学"应整合显微构造学成就,研究岩石组构稳定特征、流变特征、广义摩擦特征等,需要将显微构造学唯象理论上升到大尺度断层力学理论中,将岩石组构引入到岩石力学实验中。不同尺度关注点不同、理论不同、取用参数不同,加剧了研究群体的隔离。断层内泥粒是可以迁移的,由此产生"断层泥粒迁移学"。断层闭锁的概念需要重新考虑,未来研究应立足"慢应变"和"大尺度"的断层摩擦延展力学。
中文关键词: 断层力学  摩擦  慢应变  Mohr范式  组构
Abstract:In order to reveal the whole-theory of fault mechanics, this paper reviews the development of fault mechanics, the due system, the lack of frame and summarizes the differences of academic concerns and research contents. The results show that there are scale differences and target differences in the correlation field of fault mechanics. Fault mechanics is a link in multi-disciplinary fields, yet it is still a zone no one to manage. There are differences in size and deformation velocity between rock cracks and faults with internal structures. The centennial development trajectory of fault research from external forces to fault-tectonic stress field and then to slip-line-field is a simplified and practical way, which hinders the development of quantitative theory. "Mohr paradigm" is the support, with practical and simplified features, which also hinders the development of fault mechanics towards mechanism and quantification. There are two kinds of methods in fault research, forward modeling and inversion. Forward modeling mainly includes experimental fault mechanics and theoretical fault mechanics. The combination of forward modeling and inversion is the future development direction. In accordance with the "unified law of mechanics", "geomechanics" embodies the spatial relation and mechanical relation of faults and belongs to the category of "generalized fault mechanics". The "generalized fault mechanics" system is applicable to the development of "unified development, concern and connection", while the "narrow sense mechanics" system is applicable to the development of "decentralized development, individual achieve". The pre-rift always controlling the secondary fault and influencing the stress distribution and the "theory of stress restriction" is an important direction in the future. "fault rheological tribology" and the "fault rock fabric tribology" will emerge as two directions in the future, and the "fault rock fabric tribology" should be integrated micro-tectonics, the stability of rock fabric characteristics, the rheological characteristics, generalized friction characteristic and so on. The microscopic structural phenomenology theory needs to be promoted to the large-scale fault mechanics theory, and rock fabric needs to be introduced to the rock mechanics experiment. Different scales have different concerns, different theories and different parameters, which aggravate the isolation of research groups. The mud-particles in faults can be migrated, resulting in "The theory of fault mud-particles transport". The concept of fault-locking needs to be reconsidered, and future research should be based on the "slow strain" and "large-scale" frictional extension mechanics of fault.
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基金项目:河北省高等学校人文社会科学研究重点项目(SD162001);中央高校基本科研业务费团队项目(ZY20180104);中央高校科研基本业务费项目(SD162001);中国地震局教师科研基金(20150103)
引用文本:
关成尧,赵国春,白相东,袁四化,张艳,刘晓燕.断层力学科学范畴、发展脉络评论及未来发展思考[J].地质力学学报,2018,24(4):555-586DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2018.24.04.058
GUAN Chengyao,ZHAO Guochun,BAI Xiangdong,YUAN Sihua,ZHANG Yan,LIU Xiaoyan.REVIEW OF CATEGORY AND DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT OF FAULT MECHANICS[J].,2018,24(4):555-586DOI:10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2018.24.04.058

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