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地质力学学报:2013,19(3):242-266
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第四纪主要定年方法及其在新构造与活动构造研究中的应用综述
田婷婷1,2, 吴中海2, 张克旗2, 张绪教1
(1.中国地质大学地球科学与资源学院, 北京 100083;2.中国地质科学院地质力学研究所, 北京 100081)
OVERVIEW OF QUATERNARY DATING METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NEOTECTONICS AND ACTIVE TECTONICS RESEARCH
TIAN Ting-ting1,2, WU Zhong-hai2, ZHANG Ke-qi2, ZHANG Xu-jiao1
(1.College of Earth Science and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China;2.Institude of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China)
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投稿时间:2013-01-22    
中文摘要: 新构造与活动构造的定量或半定量研究很大程度上依赖于对地层序列及其时间标尺的确立,获取相对精确的地层年龄和事件的发生年龄是决定新构造与活动构造定量研究程度的最主要因素.目前,约27种定年技术能够应用于沉积物定年和晚新生代的变形测定,这些技术方法可以分为数值(绝对)定年法、相对定年法和校正定年法.数值定年法可得到相对明确的绝对年龄值,因此最为常用,但应用范围受限于测试物质或对象的不同,因而准确定年还需要辅以相对定年法或校正定年法.相对定年法应用范围广泛,但缺乏足够的精确性,需要特定的标准来比对.校正定年法仅在部分情况下适用,且其适用性取决于对已知地质事件的认可度,如火山爆发或磁极倒转.所有定年方法都有其特定的定年条件和适用范围,且可能受到各种干扰因素的影响导致误差,如在数值定年的过程中可能出现一些非分析性错误.因此对于第四纪定年法在新构造与活动构造研究中年龄结果的可靠性评估,需要综合沉积物的地貌-地层相对时序、不同定年方法比较或相同方法在地层上的时序一致性等来实现.近年来,已有方法的持续改良和试验性方法的不断发展使得新构造与活动构造定年精度和定量化研究程度得到极大提升,尤其是14C、光释光、U系、宇宙成因核素(10Be,36Cl和26Al等)和热年代学等常用定年方法为新构造与活动构造的定量研究提供了重要的年代学手段和依据.此外,土壤发育、岩石风化和地形改造程度等相对定年法的不断发展,也为新构造变形及活动性研究提供了很多必需的辅助年龄约束.
Abstract:The quantitative or semi-quantitative research of neotectonics and active tectonics largely relies on the establishment of stratigraphic sequence and the time scale, how to obtain relatively precise the stratigraphic ages and the age of occurrence of geological events is the key factor to determine the neotectonics and active tectonics degree of quantitative research. Currently, about 27 kinds of dating techniques can be applied to the dating of sediments and the deformation measurement of the late Cenozoic, these technical methods can be divided into numerical (absolute) dating, relative dating method and correction dating method. Numerical dating can get a relatively clear absolute age value, so it is commonly used, but is limited by test material or object, therefore it is necessarily in need with relative dating or correction dating method. The application scope of relative dating is widespread, but the lack of adequate accuracy, therefore it needs specific standard to compare. Correction dating is only partly applicable and its applicability depends on the approval of the known geological events, such as volcanic eruptions or pole reversals. All the dating method has its specific dating conditions and scope of application, and may be influenced by various factors leading to errors, such as in the process of numerical dating some non analytical errors may occur. So the reliability evaluation of age results in the study of the Quaternary dating in the neotectonics and active tectonics, needs the synthesis of sediment topography-formation relative temporal sequence, comparation of different dating methods, or the sequential consistency of the same way on the formation, etc. In recent years, the continuous improvement of existing methods and development of experimental methods makes that the precision and quantitative research degree of the neotectonics and active tectonics is improved greatly, especially common dating methods such as the 14C, OSL, U series, cosmogenic nuclides (10Be, 36Cl and 26Al, etc.) and thermochronological dating provide the important means and basis of chronology for the quantitative research of neotectonics and active tectonics. In addition, such as the degrees of soil development, rock weathering and topographical reforming, the development of relative dating also provide a lot of necessary, assistant age restriction for the neotectonics deformation and active tectonics research.
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基金项目:中国地质调查局项目"青藏高原东南缘重要活动断裂厘定与活动构造体系综合研究"(1212011120163);国家自然科学基金项目(41171009);中国地质科学院地质力学研究所基本科研业务费项目(DZLXJK201202)
引用文本:
田婷婷,吴中海,张克旗,张绪教.第四纪主要定年方法及其在新构造与活动构造研究中的应用综述[J].地质力学学报,2013,19(3):242-266DOI:
TIAN Ting-ting,WU Zhong-hai,ZHANG Ke-qi,ZHANG Xu-jiao.OVERVIEW OF QUATERNARY DATING METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN NEOTECTONICS AND ACTIVE TECTONICS RESEARCH[J].,2013,19(3):242-266DOI:

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